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Hubbard the Stage Hypnotist Series

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The Anderson Report
on Hypnotism
in Scientology

Use of the "Confusion Technique" in scientology

Hypnosis in scientology - The Gradation Chart Revealed - LINK

Hypnosis Is
What Works in scientology by
Don Carlo

Hubbard Denounced by Inventor of the E-Meter

Hypnosis Demonstration and Collective on Hubbard's Use of Covert Hypnosis - Exposed

Dianetics in the 1952 Journal of Hypnosis and Instantaneous Hypnosis" by Harry Arons

scientology's Source of the "E-Meter
Stress Test"
("psycho-galvanic reflex.") and More From 1943 - George Estabrooks

A Comparison of Hypnosis and Auditing from Ex-Member who Became a Certified Clinical Hypnotherapist

Hubbard's own statements about Hypnosis from his books and Scientology official publications.


The Rape of the Mind by Joost Meerloo 1957 - LINK


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Charles Manson had a scientology e-meter at Spahn ranch"



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Books Are Weapons In The War of Ideas

HYPNOSIS by G.A. Estabrooks
1943

Chapter 4

SOME CURIOUS STATES IN EVERYDAY LIFE WHICH ARE DUE TO HYPNOTISM

LET us now examine some of those states which are closely related to hypnotism, for in so doing we will not only understand the underlying cause of these related phenomena but will obtain a fuller picture of hypnotism itself. Take, for instance, automatic writing as a first example. The reader is probably familiar with this curious state, wherein the subject's hand writes "automatically" with no reference to what is in the conscious mind.

This may take many forms. The subject may lose consciousness completely while the hand writes, but in general he retains his full conscious faculties. He may be able to interrupt the hand but again the writing hand is generally a law unto itself. It scribbles along until it has finished, perhaps in five minutes, perhaps in fifty, then stops and is again a part of the normal body pattern. The usual picture is somewhat as follows. The subject relaxes in a chair with a pencil in his hand, a paper on the desk. After one or two minutes the hand makes a few convulsive movements, then starts writing. The letters are generally large and ill-formed, but in some cases as in that of Stainton Moses the writing may be beautiful. The hand guides itself largely by touch and writes until it comes to the end of the page, then pauses with pencil uplifted awaiting a fresh sheet of paper. The subject himself may supply this with his other hand, or, if in trance, his associate will put the fresh sheets in place.

The strange thing about this whole procedure is that the subject has no control over the hand in question. He has not the slightest idea as to what it will next write and is often badly embarrassed when the hand makes a "remark," so to speak, which should not occur in polite society. We can screen the writing hand from the subject's sight, passing it through a cloth curtain. Then the subject can quietly read a magazine while we experiment with the hand. It will write along, in no way disturbing the subject and in no way disturbed by what he may be reading or thinking.

We stick a pin in the hand, but the subject does not pay the least attention. But the hand promptly writes "stop it," "cut it out," or some such phrase. The writer had an ex-army friend on whom he tried this little trick. Everything was going along in fine fashion until we pricked the hand with a needle, whereupon the hand burst into a stream of cuss words that would have made any regimental sergeant-major blush with shame. For full five minutes it told the operator just where he could go and how to get there. All this time the subject was reading Oil for the Lamps of China without the slightest idea that his good right arm was fighting a private war.

We refer to automatic writing as an example of dissociation. The arm in question is dissociated, is cut off from the rest of the body. This must mean that those parts of the brain which control the arm are for the time being disconnected with those parts responsible for normal waking consciousness, which could be explained in terms of the synapse theory we have already mentioned. At any rate, the arm acts by itself and seems to be an outlet by which the unconscious mind can express itself without completely unseating the conscious mind. Certain we are that this hand will often mention facts which are quite unknown to the subject.

This often has great use in medicine. We take a subject, aged twenty-five, who is a victim of the hand-washing mania; he simply must wash his hands forty times a day. He also does automatic writing, and as we can get no real information from him which might explain his compulsion to hand washing, we ask the hand itself in automatic writing.

"Why do you have this compulsion to wash?" "I don't know."
"Now, think. When did it first make its appearance?" "Sometime when I was about eleven or twelve."
"That is not close enough. You can do a lot better. Now, think. When? When and why?"
"Good heavens. Now I know," and the hand scribbles out the story.

It appears that, as a boy, he had a dog of which he was very fond. On one occasion this dug fell into an open cesspool, and was in danger of drowning. The boy had a friend hold his legs, then reached down and rescued the dog, getting himself filthy in the process. Worse than this he also collected a sound thrashing from his father, who told him that he had probably contracted various diseases, including syphilis. On this basis was built up the morbid compulsion to wash his hands. We will see later that the most important step in curing many such conditions is that of learning the original cause.

We can find examples of these automatic movements in much simpler form than those involved in automatic writing. Most of the readers have probably been present at a "table tilting seance," wherein the table is in contact with the spirit world and raps out its messages to friends on this side of the border. Science now generally concedes that the movements of the table are due to automatic-and quite unintentional-pushes and pulls on the part of the "sitter." The fact that these always protest that they have exerted no conscious effort means nothing, for we get these automatic movements in far more elaborate form with automatic writing and here the subject may be totally ignorant of what his hand is doing. Moreover, the plea that the table sometimes raps out information of which no one present is conscious also means nothing. These automatic movements, as coming from the unconscious, would have much material at their disposal of which the normal mind would be in ignorance. It is difficult for the average reader to grasp this possibility, but we will refer him to the cases of multiple personality which we discuss in later pages of this chapter. This weird condition probably gives the most convincing illustrations which psychology can muster.

In this same class, of course, comes work with the ouija board, an instrument with which we are all familiar. Here the automatic and wholly unconscious movements of the sitter guide the little table over the board as it spells out answers to the various questions. It is interesting to note here that some people can work the ouija board with great success obtaining from it all kinds of information of which they have no knowledge. It comes from the unconscious. Others can get nothing at all from the board. It simply refuses to budge. This is in strict accord with what we would expect if susceptibility to these automatic movements had anything to do with a similar openness to hypnotic suggestion.

And it has, very definitely. The writer, in his experience, has met many people who, as a pastime, practiced automatic writing. Whenever he has tried hypnotism with these people, they always turned out to be excellent subjects. And we find the same with people who can get good results from the ouija board. As a matter of fact an experienced operator has to waste very little time looking for subjects. A little inquiry will show that in any group there are people who consistently walk or talk in their sleep, who have practiced automatic writing, who like to work with the ouija board or who have success as "crystal gazers." With such people the operator can proceed under the almost certain assumption that he is dealing with good hypnotic subjects.

He is dealing with a person who is highly suggestible and it would appear that most of these automatic movements, so often associated with spiritism are largely the result of autosuggestion. The subject becomes interested in spiritism, and has an intense desire to get some of the "mediumistic" phenomena in himself. So he seats himself in front of paper, with a pencil in his hand, relaxes and hopes for results. This is simply one form of autosuggestion and if the individual is a good hypnotic subject, he gets the results he wishes. If not, he becomes discouraged and concludes that the whole thing is a fraud. But there is nothing supernatural or supernormal about automatic writing or the ouija board.

The results depend on dissociation produced by suggestion. We will see later that while dissociation may not be the whole explanation of hypnotism, the fact remains that we almost never get hypnotism without dissociation. They are psychological Siamese twins born of the same parent, suggestion, and both dependent on the suggestibility of the individual in question. That analogy is not quite correct, but it gives a pretty good picture for all that.

Then again we see the relationship between these states and hypnotism in the fact that we can easily obtain them in most good hypnotic subjects by means of suggestion in the trance. We make use of the posthypnotic suggestion, saying to the subject, "In the future whenever you wish to do automatic writing, you will sit down before a sheet of blank paper, take a pencil in your hand, and relax. You will then recite the first five letters of the alphabet at the end of which your hand will begin to write." It may be necessary to repeat these suggestions in following seances, even to give some very specific suggestion as "your hand will write `Mary had a little lamb"' just by way of getting the subject into the knack of the thing. But with persistence the somnambulist can generally succeed with automatic writing while the automatic writer will almost always become a somnambulist.

Another curious phenomenon we see in everyday life is "crystal gazing." Here again the unconscious seems near the surface and in this case vision is used as the outlet. Also it can be obtained as a result of posthypnotic suggestion and very probably most crystal gazers are good hypnotic subjects. The writer has had too little experience here to say but feels certain that such is the case. By the way, we do not need a crystal for crystal gazing. A glass of water is just as good especially if we have a point of concentration on the surface, such as a small drop of oil. Even this is unnecessary. And the technique for developing the "power" is exactly the same as is that in the case of automatic writing. Sit down, relax, gaze into the water, and hope for results, all of which is a perfect setting for autosuggestion. The process can be made much shorter by using the posthypnotic suggestion, showing again the close tie-up between the hypnotic states and these odd conditions of everyday life. Moreover, the "visions" we get in crystal gazing are the same as the revelations through automatic writing. Material drawn from the unconscious mind, sometimes dealing with events of which the subject has no conscious knowledge. The reservoir is the same but the "pipe line" leads in different directions. In automatic writing to the hand, in crystal gazing to the eyes, but nothing supernatural in either case. A very excellent and authoritative book on this subject is that by T. Besterman.

All these conditions illustrate a very important principle of which we will later deal at greater length. Certain experiences of childhood and later life are "repressed," are forced out of consciousness because of the fact that they are very unpleasant. These are completely forgotten so far as our everyday life is concerned, but while "down" they are not "out." As a matter of fact, they may cause a great deal of trouble, being the origin of all sorts of mental disorders.

"Shell shock" is a case in point. It really should be called "war neurosis" since it has nothing to do with shells necessarily, but is a reaction to fear. In general, it will be found that these shell shock cases have a period of amnesia, a memory blank, for some very terrible experience. They remember nothing about it, yet for purposes of a cure it is necessary that it be restored to consciousness. Hypnotism is excellent, or any other trick, which taps the unconscious, including crystal gazing.

The writer recalls one such case in the last war. The patient was suffering from a violent tremor all over his body, so violent that he could not walk or even feed himself. The doctor, thinking that he would try hypnotism, began explaining to the subject just what he would want. In the course of the conversation the subject volunteered the information that he had once been very much interested in crystal gazing and had been quite successful in obtaining visions. This seemed a good lead so the doctor proposed he try it and report his experiences.

The patient did so, and saw in the glass the whole terrible experience of a bombing attack in which most of his company had been killed and he himself had bombed three of the enemy in a dugout under very harrowing circumstances. Yet previous to this vision he would not recall any details of the attack, his mind being a complete blank for a period of roughly twentyfour hours.

Another type of automatic activity which is not so generally known but which further illustrates our point is the phenomenon of "shell hearing." We are all familiar with the fact that if we cover an ear with a shell we get a peculiar confused roaring. In some people this roaring refines itself into voices and these become a series of auditory hallucinations. Moreover, we do not need the classic shell. A tea cup held over the ear does just as well and as usual the voices heard tell of events with which the subject is already familiar or which are in his unconscious mind.

Both automatic writing and shell hearing naturally lend themselves to another line of activity. The writer or listener is able to express his own philosophy of life in such a way that he may easily rank himself as a prophet. For some strange reason the average man is very much impressed with these automatic phenomena both in others and in himself. Consequently if he has a vision, receives a message by automatic writing or hears "voices" with or without the "shell," he is very liable to regard them as direct from the supernatural and act as if he were receiving guidance from the deity.

All the aspects of automatic phenomena are summed up best in our final example, automatic speech, speaking with tongues or glossolalia. The best book on the subject is that by G. B. Cutten. We are all familiar with the Bible story of Pentecost day, when the tongues of fire descended on the disciples' heads and they began talking in "tongues." Whether or not this original experience involved actual foreign languages in which they were to preach the reader may judge for himself. Suffice it for our purposes to say that fifty years later, in the days of St. Paul, the "gift of tongues" was understood by no one. St. Paul himself advises his followers to expend their energies along other lines since no person can understand what they are talking about. Since his time there has not been a case, acceptable to psychology, wherein an individual has been able to speak any language without first going through the process of learning the same. To be sure, we have heard of many such cases in popular literature, even have certain religious groups who insist that their members talk all sorts of foreign languages with no previous training, but the psychologist would still say "unproven."

What happens here is exactly the same sort of thing we have already seen in automatic writing. A case of dissociation, only here it is the muscles of the throat which are no longer under control of the normal waking personality. The individual starts talking just as the automatic writer writes, the throat muscles appearing, to run themselves without any conscious control from the person in question. The words the subject utters may be utterly unintelligible, a language of his own, a "divine language" as it is sometimes called or he may speak his own native tongue, expressing what is in the unconscious mind. In this latter case we again have an analogy from automatic writing. The thoughts expressed may be utterly trivial, even foolish, or they may represent the working of a profound, even artistic mind. It might be well here to introduce a case which achieved considerable fame a few years back, fame which was justly earned, to illustrate some points.

We refer to the case of Patience Worth. Here we have a lady, Mrs. Curran in everyday life, who lived the healthy normal existence of millions of other American women. She had a high school education, had early hoped to become a singer or an artist of some description and again, like millions of others, had been forced to realize that she simply did not have the ability. Fortunately she had the good sense to accept this fact, a point of view which all too many humans never will realize.

But, strange to say, Mrs. Curran ended up as an artist, one of the best; yet not Mrs. Curran, but the unconscious of Mrs. Curran, Patience Worth. This curious situation illustrates very nicely how these automatic phenomena merge into one another just as do the various stages of hypnotism. Table tilting and the ouija board are more or less crude manifestations of the unconscious at work, an outcropping which is not too convincing and is purely temporary, but in the case of Patience Worth the unconscious has assumed the role of a separate and distinct personality, one which is in some respects far superior in ability to the original. Here we are verging on multiple personality, which we will discuss very shortly.

This organized unconscious of Mrs. Curran gave itself the name of Patience Worth and claimed to be the spirit of an English girl who had lived in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, during the latter half of the sixteenth century. Moreover, while Mrs. Curran had no particular artistic ability, Patience Worth was an author of the highest grade, writing several books and publishing many poems which are admitted good by our best critics. And, strange as it may seem, these books contain a much higher percentage of sixteenth century English than almost any other novel or poem written in America! If the reader wishes a thorough and scientific discussion of this case we refer him to the book, The Case o f Patience Worth, by W. F. Prince.

While science will not accept the claim that a spirit from past years occupies the body of Mrs. Curran, science will admit that the case is very complex, showing to a very high degree that ingenuity of the unconscious so evident in hypnotism. This unconscious, having assumed the title Patience Worth, has been remarkably consistent, as shown by the fact that she always uses a preponderance of old English words in all her writings. We leave the reader the task of reviewing the evidence and deciding for himself whether or not she has proved her point.

This particular case illustrates another very interesting phase of automatic activity. With practice it sometimes becomes far more efficient, the unconscious itself becoming better organized. Patience Worth began her communications with the planchette, a crude form of ouija board. But this was a very slow and clumsy method for such a brilliant personality so she "graduated" to automatic writing. Even this proved too tedious so she now does her work by automatic speech. Moreover, she has the most remarkable control over this speech. She, Mrs. Curran, sits down and relaxes. Immediately Patience Worth comes to the surface and begins work on her latest novel or book of poems, Mrs. Curran being conscious all the time and literally attending to her knitting. Should the phone ring Mrs. Curran immediately answers it, takes over control of her throat and talks as Mrs. Curran. A minute later Patience Worth is dictating her book! This evidence of unconscious ability is by no means as rare as many of the readers may think. We find it in many spirit mediums, a group whom we discuss later in this chapter. And, as would naturally be expected, we find it in certain hypnotic subjects when we take the trouble to look, sometimes the evidence of artistic ability approaching genius. After all, that is not so unreasonable as it may sound. We have repeatedly said that the subject in hypnotism is not "asleep." He is very much awake, but a different personality. We know that a great deal of genius in humanity is held down by social pressure; the individual does not dare give vent to his artistic talents for fear of making a fool of himself. But we also know that hypnotism may lift these "inhibitions," as we term them, in some cases freeing the subject in the sense that he cares very little for the opinions of his social group. Under these circumstances genius, if it exists, might have the chance of pushing to the fore. For instance, Coleridge claimed to have written Kubla Khan during his sleep, which was very probably a state of unconscious activity.

As we mentioned before, these automatic phenomena tend to merge into one another. Patience Worth, as the unconscious of Mrs. Curran, is so well organized that we may regard her as a separate personality, which brings us to the most curious of all these automatic, these semi-hypnotic conditions, that of multiple personality.

And with this field of multiple personality we find a gradual increase in complexity. The most simple cases we refer to as the fugue or flight. William James, reported on such cases, among the earliest in the literature. A man named Ansel Bourne lived in Boston. Suddenly he vanished and after careful search was given up as lost. Six months later a man in Philadelphia, who had been running a grocery store suddenly "woke up," gave his name as Ansel Bourne and asked to know what he was doing so far away from home. Apparently he had run his grocery business fairly well for six months while in this "unconscious" condition, his "secondary" personality taking charge and giving the appearance of normalcy. Such a case is very simple. From here we can go to the type of case represented by Rou. Here the reader will see the very close resemblance between this particular type and somnambulism as seen in sleep walking. We have already pointed out the very close relationship between somnambulism and hypnotism. Rou was a poor boy of Paris, France, who lived with his mother, a small storekeeper. But Rou was in the habit of frequenting saloons where he was fascinated by the tales of sailors.

He longed to become a sailor himself and escape from his uninteresting world. Then something very curious began to happen. He would suddenly lose consciousness and start for the seacoast, doing all sorts of odd jobs to keep himself alive and fit. His unconscious had taken over control and decided to become a sailor. Then at the end of a day, a week, or a month, he would suddenly come to himself or "wake up" without the slightest knowledge of where he was or how he got there. He would be sent back to Paris and would be quite normal for a period, then once again he would have a fugue, would walk in his sleep, and start out for the coast. This case we will see is more complex than that of Ansel Bourne in that the subject had recurrent attacks.

We could devote many pages to other cases by way of showing their growing complexity but will proceed at once to a very interesting and complex example, which was carefully studied by Professor Morton Prince of Harvard. We refer to the famous Beauchamp case of multiple personality.

Miss Beauchamp was a young lady, a nurse in training at a Boston Hospital, when Dr. Prince was called in to take over the case because of very peculiar actions on the part of the lady in question. After long and careful study he made a very interesting discovery. Her body contained no less than four distinct personalities. When he first met her she was under the control of the personality he later called B1, or the Angel. As such, she was a very sickly, nervous, highly religious, overconscientious type, easily tired and always worrying over the sins of humanity and her own lost state.

Then he made a further discovery.. Another personality made its appearance, BIII, Sally, or the Imp. Sally was a totally different proposition. She was a girl of eight or nine, absolutely irresponsible, with tireless energy and apparently no conscience whatsoever. Sally was always present but generally as an unconscious personality, "squeezed" by the Angel, as she said. She knew everything that was going on and thoroughly hated the other personality which insisted on taking the body to church, or keeping it quietly in its room while she, Sally, could think of far more interesting things to do. This was because Sally could not generally get control of the body but as the condition became worse, as the dissociation became more marked, Sally found it easier and easier to take over charge and then, ah then, she had a delicious revenge.

The Angel loathed even the appearance of sin. Sally was not by any means so conscientious. One of her delights was to take the body out on a wild "party" including beer and young men. Then to suddenly withdraw, leave the body to the Angel and watch her squirm as she got herself back to the hospital. This case occurred in the early 1900's, when the morals of the country would make such a situation even worse than today.

Then again, Sally was tireless, the Angel fatigued very easily. Sally could go for a five mile walk and end fresh as a daisy. Five hundred yards would leave the Angel exhausted, so Sally would get control of the body, take it on a particularly long walk and then withdraw, enjoying the tortures which the Angel suffered in getting herself back home again.

The Angel also prided herself on being very neat, both as to clothes and to room. This gave Sally a glorious opening. When particularly displeased with the Angel, she would take over control of the body and then wreck the room, turning the drawers inside out and piling everything in a heap in the middle of the floor. All these little tricks Sally used as a club on the Angel. In other words, "don't take the body to church; or else-. Do as I say, and I'll leave you in relative peace, be obstinate and I'll `turn on the heat'." The reader will please note that this is not a case taken from a novel, as Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, but is an actual situation reported by one of our ablest psychiatrists. If the reader wishes further details than those we give, we refer him to Dr. Prince's own book, The Dissociation o f a Personality.

Dr. Prince then discovered that a third personality was appearing; namely, BIV or the Woman. It is curious to note that neither the Angel nor the Woman were actually conscious of Sally's thoughts and actions. Sally communicated with them or rather delivered her ultimatums by letter and Prince explained what it was all about. Neither were the Woman nor the Angel conscious of each other. But Sally, from her position, was aware of both thoughts and actions of the other two. As we said before, these cases of multiple personality can be very complex. The Woman had a different personality from either of the others. She was headstrong, vain and spiteful; moreover, she also insisted on taking the body to such places as good stores and good concerts, which Sally loathed. So Sally started a campaign against this new menace, but discovered that the Woman and the Angel were quite different people to handle. She tried her tricks but they did not work. She made a jumble sale of the Woman's clothes, and piled them on the floor. The Woman promptly took Sally's toys and threw them into the fire. The conflict was short and sharp, ending in an armistice with both sides in a position of armed neutrality. Unfortunately they both occupied the same body, so there were definite limits to which either could go. Sally would cheerfully have cut off the Woman's nose but she would have been literally spiting her own face. It happened to be her nose as well.

Then Dr. Prince made another discovery, and here we find again the tie-up between hypnotism and these various states of dissociation. If he hypnotized either B1, the Angel, or BIV, the Woman, he got a new personality, BII, which had all the memories of both. Moreover, this new individual was a much more evenly balanced person than the other two, more of a real woman. This led Prince to conclude that this was the real Miss Beauchamp, that the Angel and the Woman were only halves, so to speak, of BII.

Yet whenever he awakened BII, he always got BI or BIV. However, with persistence and by insisting in hypnotism that BII should awaken with the memories of both the Angel and the Woman he finally succeeded in awakening BII as the real Miss Beauchamp. And Sally? She could not be included in the personality synthesis. By means of hypnotism she was robbed of her power to control the body and "squeezed" back into her corner until she would no longer trouble the real Miss Beauchamp. That involves a very neat question in ethics. Sally was a real personality. To what extent was Prince guilty of psychological murder, so to speak?

We would wish to make a point before we proceed, since we wish later to show more clearly how and why hypnotism is of such use in these cases; in reality they are caused by a form of hypnotism in the first place! We will see that emotional shock produces exactly the same results as hypnotism, that hypnotism may in reality be a form of emotional shock. We are not clear on this point, but we do know that shock gives us all the phenomena of hypnotism and vice versa. If we read over the Beauchamp case or most other such cases we will see that the condition has been caused by some severe emotional strain. What actually happened in the Beauchamp case appears to have been somewhat as follows. A very severe period of fear in childhood ending about the age of seven in a bad fright received from the father. This "split" the personality into the Sally, or BIII and the BII parts. Sally remained the childish creature she was at that time as a "co-conscious" personality, while BII continued her development. Then around the age of eighteen came another great shock, this time in connection with her love life, when BII split into BI, the Angel, and BIV, the Woman.

The reader will recall that BI or BIV hypnotized gave BII. The cure consisted of binding these personalities together again by means of hypnotism in the BII stage and then in being able to make this personality strong enough so that it would still remain BII on awakening and not return to BI or BIV. But BIII or Sally had had too long and independent an existence.

It proved impossible to unite her personality with that of BII, so the only way of solving this problem was to repress her completely. Somewhat of a Chinese puzzle but a very interesting study accepted as true in all psychological circles.

When Dr. Morton Prince was investigating the Beauchamp case, a namesake of his on the west coast, Dr. W. F. Prince, was unwittingly making a very important contribution to this subject of multiple personality and its very close relationship to hypnotism. The reader must be careful to keep these two men separate for they were both friendly enemies during their entire lives. W. F. Prince passed his later years in Boston so that, with Morton Prince at Harvard, they could really quarrel to their hearts' content. Both, we should add, were men of the very highest ability, names that are respected and honored in the history of psychology.

Dr. W. F. Prince was probably America's greatest authority on psychic research or spiritism for the last ten or fifteen years before his death. Yet he conducted his research in this very difficult subject in such a way as to hold the respect of science. This is the more remarkable when we bear in mind the fact that his, of all fields, is open to suspicion of fraud, prejudice, and poor scientific methods. His writings, found among the publications of the Boston Society for Psychic Research as well as the American and British Societies, are always characterized by moderation and a keen sense of scientific judgment. The unwitting contribution of W. F. Prince to this subject of multiple personality came about somewhat as follows. Dr. Morton Prince was receiving great publicity in scientific circles for his excellent work with Miss Beauchamp, and in the early 1900's very little was known about such cases. W. F. Prince in his ceaseless search for the one best spiritistic medium was working with a girl, Doris Fischer. He was astonished to find that Miss Fischer was also a case of multiple personality and, following the technique of the Harvard man, he used hypnotism to investigate his very interesting subject. To his astonish- ment and that of the world in general this case developed in almost identical fashion to that of Miss Beauchamp. There was a Sally, an Angel, and a Woman, although W. F. Prince did not use these names. Moreover in the course of the treatment he cured the condition in a fashion very similar to that used by Morton Prince. His Angel and his Woman were brought together as the real Miss Fischer through hypnotism, while his Sally was "squeezed" into oblivion. It is of interest to note that he adopted Miss Fischer as his own daughter and after the cure she gave every appearance of being a very healthy, well balanced personality.

The great significance of this case lies in the fact that W. F. Prince, one of the most careful investigators almost certainly created this case of multiple personality through the use of hypnotism, and this result was quite unintentional on his part. A striking example of the effects which operator attitude may have. We can visualize the process. Miss Fischer was an excellent hypnotic subject and of more than average intelligence. Morton Prince was just publishing his remarkable Beauchamp case. Dr. W. F. Prince, later her adopted father, was very much interested in this, doubtlessly the literature was lying around and he probably discussed the case in her presence. He certainly had in his own mind a very clear cut image of how the Beauchamp case was progressing. When he began his work with Miss Fischer, somehow this picture was conveyed to the subject's mind, whether through her own reading, his discussion or through unconscious hints which he let drop. This is almost certain because these cases of multiple personality simply do not follow a fixed pattern. The many examples we have in the literature are extremely varied as to number and type of personalities. That these two most complex of all cases should be identical is almost impossible. The evidence is all in favor of the fact that the Doris Fischer case was built up on the spot.

In fact there are some who will go even farther and claim that the Beauchamp case itself was at least guided in its development by the use of hypnotism. Even as late as 1905 or 1910 we did not know nearly as much of the importance which operator attitude may assume. If two men of this capacity could be completely deceived, the reader will see our reasons for questioning a great deal of the experiments reported by older investigators.

The work of the two 'Princes carries us still farther into this matter of hypnotism and multiple personality. It sheds some very interesting light on the problems presented by spiritism, their argument here centering around the famous spirit medium, Mrs. Chenoweth. The reader will find her work discussed at length by W. F. Prince and others in the proceedings of both the American and the British Societies for Psychic Research. She was probably the best "mental" medium in America outside the famous Mrs. Piper, at the time of this investigation an old lady.

Mrs. Chenoweth gave the typical picture of the spirit medium when in trance. She was controlled by the spirit of an Indian girl "Sunbeam" who had been killed by a fall from a horse in the West many years ago. Mrs. Chenoweth would sit at her table with the "sitter" on the opposite side. Then she would pass into the trance state and Sunbeam would come to take charge. She would chatter along at a great rate in a girlish voice until the sitter interrupted by reminding her that he was there for a purpose. Then she would suddenly come "down to earth" as it were and give the sitter information which was supposed to come from the spirit world.

Some of this was very hard to explain unless we admitted supernormal power on the part of the medium. For example, one of the writer's friends reports the following. Sunbeam said that she saw standing beside him the form of his father, now dead. The sitter naturally asked how he was to be sure it was his father. To this Sunbeam replied.

"He says for you to carry out the following directions as proof. Go home, go to the cellar, look up his diary for April 16, 1896. There you will find that he bought five acres of land from a Mr. Jones on Long Island." The sitter went home, looked up the date in the diary and found the entry as described. He says he had never looked into his father's diary. Which proves that he was talking to his father? By no means. There are several other possibilities which might have explained it. The medium may have been a fraud, have gotten hold of the diary beforehand and so had the information, although this seems very improbable. Or the sitter may have an hallucination himself and have looked up the diary after the manner of posthypnotic suggestion, rationalizing later as any good hypnotic subject will.

Fantastic? Possibly, but let us see what Dr. Morton Prince says. He was one of the world's best and he also lived near Boston, so that he could easily check up. And he did! His conclusions after investigating Mrs. Chenoweth were that she was a most interesting case of multiple personality-nothing more. "Sunbeam" was a sort of Sally and the other controls-for there were others-were merely the same thing he had already seen in the case of Miss Beauchamp. Certainly they were not visitors from the spirit world communicating with man through the body of Mrs. Chenoweth.

His opinion was thus in flat contradiction to that of W. F. Prince. To be sure, the latter was always very careful in his statements but the writer, who knew both these men, is convinced that Dr. W. F. Prince felt Mrs. Chenoweth did have supernormal abilities. Just how one would explain these abilities was a different matter, whether by spirit-intervention, telepathy, or clairvoyance, but he was convinced they existed.

Our point is this. Here we have possibly the two best men in the world as to qualifications investigating the best medium in America. Their conclusions were directly contrary, the one leaning towards an explanation only in terms of multiple personality, the other strongly inclined to see the supernormal in the revelations of the medium. If two men of this ability could not come to a solution of the problem, we must not expect too much from ourselves.

But we feel certain that we voice the vast majority of psychological opinion when we say that the mediumistic trance is nothing more than a state produced by autosuggestion, and as such is almost identical with the trance we see in somnambulism. Moreover, the various spirit controls are only manifestations of multiple personality, which again is so closely associated with hypnotism. We know that, with hypnosis, we can produce multiple personality. Hypnotism is also recognized as the best means to effect a cure. Furthermore, every case of multiple personality which has been subject to a psychologist's experimentation has always turned out to be an excellent hypnotic subject. If he does not prove to be such, we may take it for granted that he is bluffing-for an attack of multiple personality, a fugue such as that suffered in the case of Ansel Bourne, can be easily faked and affords the "patient" a beautiful "out" when home conditions become unbearable.

The writer was present when Professor William Brown of Oxford attempted to hypnotize one such case which had received wide publicity in the English press. Although one of the world's best operators, he had absolutely no success and promptly stated that he thought the subject had bluffed the whole thing. And such was probably the case.

It is quite impossible to discuss spiritistic phenomena at any length in a book devoted to hypnotism. Space does not permit. The writer had the opportunity of doing two years' fairly intensive work on psychic research while on scholarship at Harvard under the direction of the late Professor William McDougall and Professor Gardiner Murphy, now of City College of New York. If the reader chooses, he may look up reference to part of this work in the two excellent books of J. B. Rhine of Duke University, New Frontiers o f the Mind and Extrasensory Perception. So the writer has at least a bowing acquaintance with the field and feels that his following statements would be regarded as fair by the vast majority of psychological opinion in the country.

First as to the existence of "spiritistic" phenomena. Definitely unproven. The writer would, however, place himself on record as being far more optimistic here than most of his colleagues. He insists that there are many reports of experiments and of occurrences which cannot be explained by the normal laws of psychology as we now know them. Further that it may be quite impossible to prove "spiritism" by the laboratory method. The cold scientific atmosphere which exudes from any professional psychologist may kill something essential to the manifestation of the supernatural. But that is only a personal opinion in which the writer realizes he is in a definite minority.

So first, "unproven." Secondly, why? Various reasons. Above all things, fraud. This is a commercial world and many people find it very easy to make a comfortable income by capitalizing on the desire which we all possess for absolute assurance of a life hereafter, for the ability to communicate with those we love who are now dead. The writer recalls one very interesting and amusing case. He was attending a spiritistic seance in London, England. During the course of this seance, which was held in very bad light, a chair travelled from one side of the room to the other with no visible means of propulsion. After the meeting came to an end he wandered over to the chair and noticed it had stopped over a hot air register. The answer was obvious. A string down the hot air vent was the cause of the movement.

At the next seance he arrived early and seated himself near the opening in question, hoping that the chair would repeat its performance. It did. So the writer kept his eyes glued on the chair convinced that sooner or later someone would untie a string. And they-or rather she-did. For when everyone's attention was concentrated on a guitar which was floating over the medium's table, a small hand clothed in a black glove stole out from behind a near-by curtain to untie the string. The writer reached down and shook hands with no intention whatsoever of creating a scene. There was a ten second pause and the owner of the hand suddenly thrust a needle into the unwelcome hand. This hurt like sin so the writer squeezed and pulled, dragging a lady into the middle of the floor. The light immediately went on, the medium had hysterics, and the writer left at once by the window. Only on his way home did he realize he had left his hat behind where it still resides to this day for all he knows.

We divide the mediums into two broad groups: the physical mediums and the mental mediums. With the physical medium "things happen." Lights float around the room, music is heard, forms materialize, and objects, such as chairs, tables, or guitars, also float in mid air. Unfortunately these seances almost invariably take place in light so bad that it is impossible to detect fraud if such exists. The medium claims that the spirit forces cannot work in light. This is very unfortunate, for it also makes fraud very easy. We would also point out that the greatest of all physical mediums, D. D. Home, did his work in broad daylight. He produced better phenomena than any medium since, on one occasion floating out one window and in another six stories up! And this in excellent light! Unfortunately he did his work over fifty years ago. No one has been able to duplicate it since and so science is naturally sceptical.

We are probably on safe ground when we say that the work of the physical medium does not deserve serious consideration from science. No matter how good the "controls" in darkness there will always be the suspicion of fraud. One English investigator recently tried to use the infra-red camera, which takes pictures in darkness by means of rays invisible to the human eye. But again the "spirits" became sensitive and demanded that it be withdrawn. Science cannot waste its time in tiresome investigations under conditions which will always be open to question.

The "mental" medium, on the other hand, gives us a somewhat different problem. Here it is a question of messages from the dead, of clairvoyance, or of telepathy. To be sure there is plenty of fraud among mental mediums but at least they meet us on a fair basis. They do not demand conditions which a priori make investigation impossible. We may divide this "mental" group into the fraudulent and the genuine. For an expose of the method employed by the fraudulent medium we would refer the reader to two books, Abbott, Behind the Scenes with the Mediums and that by Price and Dingwall, Revelations of a Spirit Medium. The genuine spirit medium is in a class by himself. There can be no doubt of his-or her-sincerity. The "trance" is genuine and the various spirit controls certainly act as if they had nothing to conceal. How, then, does psychology explain the results obtained by such great mediums as Mrs. Piper, Mrs. Leonard, or Mrs. Chenoweth?

In the first place the trance is an excellent example of autohypnosis. The spiritistic trance and the hypnotic trance are identical to all intents and purposes. One is induced by the subject himself, the other with the aid of an operator. Who are the spirit "controls" such as "Sunbeam" who take over the control of the body during these seances, reporting messages from the spirit world and describing the various dead friends whom we contact? Simply the various personalities in a case of multiple personality, which as we have seen is so closely tied up with hypnotism.

The messages we receive? That is another question. In the writer's opinion, a question with not nearly as convincing an answer as the first two. First, we have the matter of unconscious cues and the possibility of great sense acuity on the part of the medium, or at least great concentration on tiny details as we mentioned in the case where the subject finds his mother's "picture." Remember that the hypnotic and mediumistic trance are essentially the same. What applies to one will hold for the other. For example, the writer was conducting some card reading experiments with a very intelligent sitter. The subject not in hypnotism, was trying to guess the playing card on which the operator was concentrating. The operator cut the jack of hearts and the subject immediately named the card correctly; Then he added, "I'm sure of that one."

"Why?"
"I heard you whisper it."

Yet the writer would have sworn he had made no sound He found this occurring several times with this subject an also in isolated cases with other subjects. Now, in theory, this subject may have had very acute hearing quite apart from hypnotic or mediumistic trance. We know from psychology that thought generally involves tiny speech movements. T1 thinker literally "talks to himself." It might be that some people have such extraordinarily keen hearing that they could pick t these unconscious and very tiny sounds, so receiving some very valuable information. Farfetched, perhaps, but possible.

This also would apply to the sense of vision, even more so to the sense of touch. Some mediums ask to hold the sitter's hand We all have at least heard of the marvelous ability of son people at "muscle reading." Suffice it here to say that this ability seems quite genuine and is accepted by psychology. Here the medium could possibly pick up expression of assent c dissent through muscle "twitches." This also may seem like pretty difficult theory to accept, but it has its points.

More important, possibly, than either of these is the subject recognition of changes in the sitter's face. Those subtle expres- sions which would tell her when she is "hot" or "cold," as she starts out to make a statement. Here again some people ma have this power of discrimination developed to a very high de- gree, much higher than that found in the average.

Then again we find that some mediums are expert at "fish ing" for information. They will throw out a hint or suggestion, watch the sitter's reactions very closely and immediately follow up with "No, that's wrong," if the sitter seems to register disapproval. If the suggestion is acceptable, they will at once follow up cautiously, feeling their way, fishing for information, and get results which are quite astonishing. All this without the sitter's being in any way aware of what is taking place.

The psychologist also has another very potent criticism against the sitter himself. The human memory is very unreliable. For a fine treatise on just how unreliable, read the book by Hugo Miinsterberg, On the Witness Stand. We cannot accept any reports of a mediumistic seance unless a secretary was present and took down all the proceedings in shorthand.

The writer had a case which illustrated this in very fine style. A friend of his had a sitting with Mrs. Chenoweth. He came away enthusiastic reporting that the medium had given him fine evidence that she was actually talking with his father. The writer had this friend hand in a report on the sitting, and then proceeded to "work" on him for the next two weeks with a view to making him change his story. Certain parts were greatly magnified during various conversations, others were completely omitted, certain new details were seized on and inserted.

At the end of this two weeks period the sitter was asked for another report on the plea that the former one had unfortunately been lost. The two reports turned out to be very different, so different in fact, that they were quite worthless as evidence. The average sitter does not realize how unreliable his own memory is or how his memory of the seance may be changed by later additions and subtractions. So, in scientific investigation we always insist on a secretarial report of what has taken place at a sitting with the "mental" medium. Yet, for all these objections, the writer still feels that there are many points. which have not been cleared up. Read, for example, Podmore's Phantasms o f the Living, or look up the sittings of Piper, Chenoweth, or Leonard in the proceedings of the various societies previously mentioned. The writer does not claim that they prove spiritism, even the supernatural but they certainly have not been explained away to his satisfaction. Also many experiments on straight telepathy included in these proceedings as well as evidence for clairvoyance. Whatever the explanation, they are not as yet explained. Nor are the results obtained by Rhine at Duke University to be brushed aside lightly as many of our critics seem to think. The waving of the magical psychological wand with the word "bunk" may satisfy the magician but not the audience.

In later chapters we will develop at greater length on this thesis of states closely related to hypnotism. For example, read Healy's book, Mental Conflicts and Misconduct. Bear in mind that emotion gives identical results with hypnotism and see how easily his cases of kleptomania or compulsive stealing fit into the picture of the posthypnotic suggestion. No hypnotist in his laboratory could have done better than nature "in the raw."

Indeed, so closely related is all functional insanity to the phenomena of hypnotism and suggestibility that the picture seems almost too simple. The compulsions, fears, and delusions of the insane and the neurotics look very much like the posthypnotic suggestion while the so-called Freudian "complex" is literally its twin brother.

Crime, insanity, but most important of all, our everyday life. We can more or less isolate the two first in our jails and our asylums. At any rate we don't approve of criminals and the insane, but we do most sincerely approve of ourselves and our neighbors. And here, unfortunately, is where hypnotism does its most terrible damage. Consider the present World War. All the insanity and crime we have in this world of ours becomes a colorless grey compared to the lurid red of bursting bombs and torpedoes.

It has always been the writer's contention that Hitler is the greatest hypnotist of our day, and this statement is not just a play upon words. To be sure he may never have read a book on the subject or know the meaning of the word. We recall the gentleman in the old French play who was delighted to find he had been speaking prose all his life. We can I think, make out a very convincing case that basically Hitler's emotional domination of the crowd-or, speaking professionally, his attack, is only the attack of the stage hypnotist, one step removed. If we can only understand the laws beneath mob psychology, perhaps we can be happier and more useful in this sadly torn world of today. And then, again, perhaps we cannot. That will depend on ourselves.

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