The E-Meter Papers

"Electric Shock, Unsafe at any Voltage"

The Handbook for Electronic Safety Procedures
ISBN 0-8306-1420-6 TAB Books

Chapter #2 "Electric Shock, Unsafe at any Voltage"

Page 10:
Fatalities have occurred at voltages as low as 24 volts AC,
which shows that almost no volatge can be considered safe if
adverse circumstances are present (if, for example, you are
sweating profusely or you are standing in water).

Just how badly you are affected by an electric shock depends on
the following primary factors:

   1) the amount of current measured in milliamperes that
      flows through the body

   2) The path that the current takes from entry to exit
      from your body

   3) The time, measured in milliseconds, you are in the circuit.

The resistance may vary from 300 ohms to 100,000 phms, depending
on the thickness of your callouses, if any, amount of
perspiration, your age, the area of electrical contact, and the
path the current takes through your body.

If the skin is broken or cut, the resistance may be as low as 300
ohms. Although resisatnce varies from moment to moment and from
person to person, at 500 ohms you cannot safely touch more than 9

As resistance decreases, the current increases. Between 1 and 6
mA you may recieve just a 'tingle'.

Based on experiments performed by Charles F. Dalziel at the
University of California at Berkeley.... "the safe let-go currents
are now considered to be 9 ma for men and 6 ma for women."

Let-go level means a level where anyone could let go of a shock
and despite the tingling of the shock.

The effect of severity of the shock depends also on the
current's path through your body.

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