II. The Precursor Intelligence Organizations
1. The "Manual of Justice"
[Except as noted, Hubbard quotes in this section are from the "Manual of Justice"]
The increasing resistance against Scientology and so-called "Dianetics" - chiefly in America, the country of its origin - caused HUBBARD early on to consider how they both could be effectively protected and how to force their expansion in the face of the alleged increasing "suppression." In HUBBARD's estimation, up until 1958, there were only small skirmishes being carried out with Scientology opponents out of their own ranks, i.e. with apostates, as well as with individual American authorities. From that time on, however, the "war" is said to have escalated and an acute need for handling arose. Because of that, HUBBARD developed an intelligence system which was meant for watching over both his own followers as well as the enemies of Scientology, and was supposed to interfere with constant harassment and persecution. HUBBARD first put his ideas down in the "Manual of Justice," which served as a basis for his later central theme:
"People attack Scientology; I never forget it, always even the score. . . . All these things add up to a Justice Hat."
"Justice," in HUBBARDese, is composed of four areas:
- Intelligence Activities
- Investigation of Evidence
- Judgment or Punishment
At the begin of this chain of strategy is the collection and evaluation of information from all accessible sources about persons, organizations and their activities with the goal of creating an extensive situational picture. At that time, HUBBARD already had a clear concept about the use and importance of these measures for the development of Scientology:
"Carefully remembered or filed and cross-indexed, such data tells its own story some day. . . . When a push against Scientology starts somewhere, we go over the people involved and weed them out. Push vanishes. Using intelligence to tell our friends from our enemies and acting fast is why we have stable organisations now where we had shambles before. It isn't better organization so much as more peace bought by more alert intelligence. We know our enemies before they hit. We keep them out of important positions. Intelligence alertness . . .pays off in peace, growth, and progress. . . . Intelligence is therefore that activity which collects data and keeps it adding up so that we know our foes from our friends and so that we can act to separate out the sources of trouble in any given situation. . . ."
The second area upon which the intelligence work is built, in that it complements it, is the "investigation of evidence":
"When things go wrong and we don't know why already by intelligence, we resort to investigation. When we need somebody haunted we investigate. Investigation is the careful discovery and sorting of facts. Without good investigation we don't have justice, we have random vengeance. When we investigate we do so noisily always. . . . Remember that - by investigation alone we can curb pushes . . . There's power in the question alone! Remember, intelligence we get with a whisper. Investigation we do with a yell. Always. . . .
Get the names. . . . Sort them out with what you already know about them. . . . investigation must always be aimed at the specific person, the time and the place. Else you'll sink in a morass of generality and get nowhere."
In conducting investigations, HUBBARD also recommended turning to "external" sources:
"Overt investigation of someone or something attacking us by an outside detective agency should be done more often and hang the expense. It's very effective. . . . Detectives cost dozens of dollars or pounds. They save thousands."
In contrast to statements from other occasions, HUBBARD noted in the "Manual of Justice" that lawsuits are seldom successful - he said they are a waste of time, of little use, and very costly. It would be best if just the threat of a suit would bring about the desired results. In other places, though, Hubbard makes it clear from the start that suits, from his point of view, can be of use:
"The purpose of the lawsuit is to harass and discourage rather than to win, The law can be used very easily to harass . . ."
"A Manual on the Dissemination of Material" (1955)
In case Scientology itself should be the object of investigation, HUBBARD also gave instructions:
"If you are being investigated or if the Central Organization is - sit tight, don't co-operate. Be legal according to the laws of the land in the first place. After that kick investigators or reporters downstairs."
HUBBARD's elitist sense of mission and the totalitarian tendencies of Scientology become particularly apparent in his findings in the area of "Judgment and Punishment":
"None of us like to judge or to punish. Yet we may be the only people on Earth with a right to punish ...".
To HUBBARD it is irrelevant whether the guilty party demonstrates conscience or insight:
"Guilt is established by a person's actions and statements, by witnesses and written evidence ... A person can be guilty without realizing he did wrong. What criminal ever does realize how wrong his actions are?"
From his view, punishment mainly follows the attack on Scientology automatically, on the basis if its mental superiority.
"Dianetics and Scientology are self protecting sciences. If one attacks them one attacks all the know-how of the mind. ... At this instance there are men hiding in terror on Earth because they found out what they were attacking. There are men dead because they attacked us ... [they] simply realized what [they] did and died. ... There are men bankrupt because they attacked us ... So punishment almost takes care of itself."
In some situations, however, immediate punishment is required:
Use civil authorities when absolutely necessary, ... but try to operate without calling in local law. We always do better ourselves or with private detectives. ... Keep our name good. ... Don't ordinarily put a head on a pike unless it's the right head. But remember that there are (E.i.O.) times when it's vitally necessary to put some head, any head, on a pike to quell rising disorder."
From these few statements of HUBBARD's out of the early years of Scientology, it is already clear which strategies and methods Scientology sought to carry out against internal and external opponents.
2. The "Special Zone Plan"
[Except as noted, Hubbard quotes in this section are from HCO Bulletin of 23 JUNE AD10 (10 years After Dianetics = 1960), "Special Zone Plan - The Scientologist's Role in Life"]
Along with the battle against "suppression," HUBBARD also developed an offensive strategy for the expansion of Scientology. Right from the start he pursued the idea of establishing Scientology in all areas of society, the economy and the state as a leading management philosophy and concept of operation ("Scientology technology"). By June of 1960 he proceeded to establish "Special Zone Departments" in all Scientology organizations on the basis of his newly developed "Special Zone Plan." In this manner he wanted to better coordinate the manifold endeavors of Scientology to encroach upon society.
HUBBARD declared that Scientologists are "doctors on the third and fourth dynamics", that the first and second dynamics need be brought into line "only to achieve better function on the third and fourth." Scientology was said to be in the position "to halt this cycle of decay" in the present civilization and to "start a new one on Earth." The Scientologists allegedly had the intelligence, capability and know-how to do that. Every Scientologists could select a zone of life in which Scientology has an interest, and go into it and bring order and success to this zone (special zone plan). For the state and socio-political zones, HUBBARD introduced the following method of procedure:
"And this: a nation or a state runs on the ability of its department heads, its governors, or any other leaders. It is easy to get posts in such areas . . . Don't bother to get elected. Get a job on the secretarial staff or the bodyguard . . . go to work on the environment and make it function better. . . . I see clearly that we have to win on the third and fourth if we are to attain our goals of a better world. . . . Our impact on the society is already weighty. With Special Zone Plans we could move that impact up thousands of times greater and have in our present lifetimes our goals at least in part accomplished and a decent world to come back to again."
3. "Department of Government Affairs"
[Except as noted, Hubbard quotes in this section are from HCO Policy Letter of 15 August 1960, "Department of Government Affairs"]
Only two months later, in August, 1960, these instructions were followed by the newly created "Department of Government Affairs." With the distribution of a Policy Letter, HUBBARD elevated the instructions for the establishment of his "special zone department", that is, he replaced them. Organizationally this new department reported directly to the "HUBBARD Association of Scientologists International" (HASI), the predecessor of the "International Association of Scientologists" (IAS) founded in 1984. In placing it there, it was outside the structure of the central organization and of the the "HUBBARD Communication Office" (HCO).
The founding of the "Department of Government Affairs" occurred primarily as a reaction to the increasing cost of the SO's disputes in matters of law and taxes as well as with other government concerns. The department was supposed to ensure that the "churches" and "missions" were able to concentrate their attention on their real missions (sale and delivery of goods and services to the public), and not be burdened with matters which were unessential to their mission. Simplistically, it was also a matter of grouping these new missions together. Internally, this department had a wide range of resources at its disposal. The work of the lawyers commissioned by Scientology are under its supervision. Major collective financial obligations, contracts, acquisitions, etc. are subject to its preliminary examination. In the long term, however, as can be concluded from this policy letter, this department is supposed to serve as the penetrating spearhead of Scientology influence in the area of government politics for the purpose of "assisting governments to maintain stability." Instead of constructive political support, however, HUBBARD revealed anew the offensive, aggressive battle strategy and the totalitarian goals of Scientology. The purpose of the department, according to HUBBARD:
"is to broaden the impact of Scientology upon governments and other organizations and is to conduct itself so as to make the name and repute of Scientology better and more forceful. Therefore, defensive tactics are frowned upon in the department. We are not trying to make the Central Orgs and HCOs "be good." We are trying to make their reach more secure and effective. Only attacks resolve threats.
In the face of danger from governments or courts, there are only two errors one can make: (a) do nothing and (b) defend. The right things to do with any threat are to (1) find out if we want to play the offered game or not (2) if not, to derail the offered game with a feint or attack upon the most vulnerable point which can be disclosed in the enemy ranks (3) make enough threat or clamor to cause the enemy to quail ...
If attacked on some vulnerable point by anyone or anything or any organization, always find or manufacture enough threat against them to cause them to sue for peace. ... Don't ever defend. Always attack. ... Unexpected attacks in the rear of the enemy's front ranks work best.
To win we must have treasure and verve. ... If the department operates with verve and elan, ... it will afford a screen behind which organizations can work.
The goal of the department is to bring the government and hostile philosophies or societies into a state of complete compliance with the goals of Scientology. This is done by high-level ability to control and in its absence by, low-level ability to overwhelm. Introvert such agencies. Control such agencies. Scientology is the only game on Earth where everybody wins. There is no overt in bringing good order."
HUBBARD defines the term "overt" as a harmful action, or one that is directed against survival, i.e. an act of commission or omission which harms the majority of the dynamics. In other words: it is not a crime to use any means to implement social order for Scientology. It would be more of a crime not to do it, as HUBBARD stated:
"A failure to destroy can be, therefore, an overt act. Assistance to something that would harm a greater number of dynamics can also be an overt act."
HCO Bulletin of 22 July 1963, "You Can Be Right"
HUBBARD's totalitarian thought structure and his acceptance of force could hardly be better illustrated than by this statement: the failure or the refusal to ruthlessly fight allegedly negative or suppressive acts and the persons doing them will, itself, be categorized as a criminal action.
4. "Department of Official Affairs"
[Except as noted, Hubbard quotes in this section are from HCO Policy Letter of 13 March 1961, "Department of Official Affairs"]
On March 13, 1961, HUBBARD replaced the Policy Letter for the "Department of Government Affairs" with the "Department of Official Affairs." What was essentially changed was just the name; all instructions remained in force, including the the mission to infiltrate and control governments. The new department continued to function as a data collection point on all anti-Scientology groups, persons and activities.
In this Policy Letter, HUBBARD, for the first time, compared the department with one from the political area known as "Ministry for Propaganda and Security," and explicitly described this as the Scientology "equivalent." The purpose of this department was to improve the public presentation, the legal position and the acceptance of Scientology by the state. One of its primary missions was "bringing continuous pressure to bear on governments to create pro-Scientology legislation." The infiltration strategy of Scientology was also detailed by HUBBARD:
"Although this department may appear to have the third dynamic as its target, it does not in fact handle anything but INDIVIDUALS. To accomplish its actions, it needs only to make friends and allies of individual people who can influence. ... The action of influencing groups consists of making a favorable impression on the head of the ally groups."
HUBBARD also extended this principle - corresponding with the "Special Zone Plan" - up to the political plane:
"The action of bringing about a pro-Scientology government consists of making a friend of the most highly placed government person one can reach, even placing Scientologists in domestic and clerical posts close to him and seeing to it that Scientology resolves his troubles and case." (comment: 'case' refers to spiritual troubles.)
Therefore every Scientologist - consciously or not - is a potential Scientology agent who looks after the interests of the organization in his own contemporary area of influence in society, in the economy and in politics.
5. "Public Investigation Section"
On February 17, 1966, the establishment of a professional intelligence agency took place with the founding of the "Public Investigation Section." The mission of the Investigation Section is stated as helping HUBBARD in investigating public matters which seem to impede human freedom. Noteworthy items about these affairs were to be researched and exposed as necessary in order to guide the progress of Scientology:
"As Scientology stands for freedom, those who don't want freedom tend to attack it. The Section investigates the attacking group's individual members and sees that the results of the investigation get adequate legal action and publicity."
The new department was to consist exclusively of professional investigators and use all the means of and perform all the functions of an intelligence service and a propaganda office. It was specified that all Scientology organizations with at least 150 people people had to have such a department. In particular, HUBBARD pointed out:
<"The personnel for this division will be sought through confidential advertisement. We give out only our telepone number and interested people will be called in ... for an interview. In the selection of these personnel, the greatest caution must be used, primarily in regards to the the former activities of these people. ... One will see that the division has all the useful function of an espionage and propaganda agency. It finds the necessary data and sees that it is handled. ... We use conventional espionage techniques. The Division maintains a folder on every project and folders of name of people inside these projects. This index also contains cross-references, etc.">
It further stated:
"This section should recognize that the media and the public are interested in murder, assault, destruction, violence, sex and dishonesty, in that order. Investigations which can uncover these factors in the activities of individuals or a group attacking Scientology are valuable in the degree that they contain a number of these factors."
HUBBARD substantiated his understanding of research and how this should occur in a short Policy Letter, which has already been cited, on the subject of "Attacks on Scientology":
"NEVER agree to an investigation of Scientology. ONLY agree to an investigation of the attackers. ...
This is correct procedure:
(1) Spot who is attacking us.
(2) Start Investigating them promptly for FELONIES or worse using our own professionals, not outside agencies.
(3) Double curve our reply by saying we welcome an investigation of them.
(4) Start feeding lurid, blood sex crime actual evidence on the attackers to the press. Don't ever tamely submit to an investigation of us. Make it rough, rough on attackers all the way.
HUBBARD's justification for this method of procedure was his alleged long-term experience that anybody who attacked Scientology was a criminal:
"There has never yet been an attacker who was not reeking with crime. All we had to do was look for it and murder would come out."
Groups which attack Scientology, according to HUBBARD, to express it cautiously, are not "mentally sound." According to the Scientology "technology," this means that they are hiding shameful facts and areas which have to be exposed - as in individual auditing - so that these areas of "mental illness" can be removed from society. HUBBARD's tactic is to turn the tables and put the attacker in the role of the one being attacked, which is supposed to justify itself. From his point of view, this process had always been successful:
So long as we neglect our role as auditor-to-the-society we will be attacked. ... The way to seize the initiative is to use our own professionals to investigate intensively parts of the society that may attack us. Get an ammunition locker full. Be sure of our facts. And then expose via the press.
6. The "Fair Game" Law
There is hardly a means which Scientology does not use in the persecution of its critics and the achievemnt of it goals, and it is often not satisfied until it has brought about the complete destruction of its critics. This is documented not only by the instructions quoted from HUBBARD, but there are also numerous examples of this from real life. In accordance with the dogma established by HUBBARD that all people who publicly oppose Scientology are "criminals" and "suppressive persons," the Scientology founder's numerous Policy Letters and instructions in regard to the intended special treatment of this group of people become more significant. The selection of the means in use ranges from open or covert data collection for psycho-terrorism, spying, false accusations and charges, slander ("black propaganda"), theft, and burglary to actual attacks and - at least this was claimed by one former American OSA agent in sworn testimony in 1994 - attempted murder.
HUBBARD assessed the number of so-called "suppressive persons" at "about 2.5% of the population." Another 17.5% were named "Potential Trouble Sources" (PTS); these are people who are under the influece of "suppressives." HUBBARD further explained:
There are certain characteristics and mental attitudes which cause about 20% of a race to oppose violently any betterment activity or group. (comment: by that is meant the SO) ... As they only comprise 20% of the population and as only 2 1/2% of this 20% are truly dangerous, we see that with a very small amount of effort we could considerably better the state of society. ... Similarly, if society were to recognize this personality type as a sick being, as they now isolate people with smallpox, both social and economic recoveries could occur.
The persecution practices of the Scientology intelligence organizations are known by the name of the "Fair Game" law, which is reminiscent, for good reason, of the Middle Ages practice of "outlaw" declarations. In 1965, HUBBARD stated that he released three Policy Letters which referred to this "Fair Game" law. Although the Policy Letters were cancelled, that is, withdrawn from public view, they continued to be used by the SO intelligence service as training policy. In 1980, leading Scientology functionaries had to admit in court that the "Fair Game" law had never really been done away with. Several high-ranking American former SO members, who themselves were victims of the "Fair Game" law, independently verified that this law continued to be a binding policy of the SO.
The Policy Letter of 21 October 1968, which allegedly cancelled the "Fair Game" law, is worded suitably ambiguously. This policy stated that the practice of declaring people "Fair Game" will cease. "Fair Game" may not appear on any Ethics Order. It caused bad public relations. This delicate wording is also interpreted to mean that only the practice of declaring shall cease; the practice of treating someone as "Fair Game" is not the issue, and is apparently not meant. Just the opposite: it was explicitly emphasized that this Policy Letter did not cancel "any policy on the treatment or handling of SPs." The SO continues to issue its so-called "SP Declares." Among the Policy Letters which were not affected by the content of this cancellation was one from 18 October, 1967, on "Penalties for Lower Conditions," which clearly described the merciless persecution of SPs. Under the ethics condition of "enemy," it literally states:
"SP Order. (comment: "Suppressive Person Declaration"). Fair game. May be deprived of property or injured by any means by any Scientologist without any discipline of the Scientologist. May be tricked, sued or lied to or destroyed."
In sworn testimony of 22 March 1976, HUBBARD asserted the opposite of this statement, that he had never had the intention to authorize illegal activity or attacks against anyone with the "Fair Game" policy. The opposite turned out to be the case: Scientology's criminal endeavors occured over the following years under the direction of the world wide intelligence "Guardian Office" (GO), which followed the footsteps of its predecessor organization a short time later, when it assumed the "ethically" legitimized persecution of apostates and Scientology opponents to a previously unknown degree.
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