NOT an official translation:
Direct questions to

4.  Questions from the view of State Security
    4.1  A Religion?
         4.1.1  The "external religious symbols"
         4.1.2  A hybrid phenomenon
    4.2  Conditions for Involvement by the State Security agency
         4.2.1  Basis
         4.2.2  Criminal charges and legal prosecution
    4.3  Organized Crime?  Political Extremism?
         4.3.1  Difficulties with the use of the term "organized crime"
         4.3.2  Application of theories about political extremism
         4.3.3  A new form of political extremism?
         4.3.4  A form of violent extremism?
    4.4  Scientology and Politics
         4.4.1  Hubbard and Politics
         4.4.2  Projects by Scientology for the reformation of Switzerland
         4.4.3  The "Justice" of the Scientologists
         4.4.4  A paranoid idea of "opponent"?
    4.5  Scientology and intelligence operations
         4.5.1  From "Guardian's Office" to "Office of Special Affairs"
         4.5.2  Hubbard's Fundamentals
         4.5.3  Procedures Still Valid
         4.5.4  The situation in Switzerland
    4.6  Extra-curiculae: The position in Germany

4. Questions from the View of State Security

Not too many years ago Scientology was counted as a dangerous organization for its adherents, but hardly dangerous for all society. Accordingly the reactions of some people who were questioned were omitted from this opinion; as far as they were concerned it would good enough to see if fraud had been committed in the event of a complaint. Others imparted persistent fears of people who have been critically disposed of this movement for a long time: "Scientology strives for power on a worldwide scale."[94] Differing viewpoints arise from balanced reactions, personal experiences and - not unimportantly - the local political environment. There are those who wish that more attention be given to the activities of certain "sects," Scientology in particular, and those have the opinion that this should only happen in an extreme case, otherwise measures by the state are not called for and unnecessary means should be avoided.

The nature of Scientology has not measurably changed in the course of the last few years. However, our view of things has surely been altered: this because of events mentioned above, and also as a consequence of recent developments in our neighboring countries where Scientology is also embroiled in controversy in the media (increasing indignation at Scientology in Germany[95], the legal proceeding in Lyon, France).

The question of whether Scientology strives to gain influence in politics is not a completely novel one, even if it was not predominant during the 1970's and 80's. The "Report of the Board of Enquiry into Scientology" written by Kevin Anderson for the State of Victoria, Australia, which was published in 1965, dedicates an entire chapter to the subject of "Scientology and Politics"; he came to the conclusion that there were certain indices, at least, that Scientology endeavored to exploit political control.

The state security agency would only take action if this were compatible with its legally prescribed mandate. For that reason, we will first concern ourselves with the provisions which would have to be fulfilled under the law for the state security agency to be able to legally step into the picture. On today's stage, a legal, preferably summary, judgment would suffice, which, if need be, would be expounded upon before the incumbent agency would be given a suitable mandate.

4.1. A Religion?

4.1.1 "Visible Signs of Religion"

The religious nature which Scientology claims for itself has several inherent problems: the group states that any measures taken against it will be exploited as persecution of a religious minority, and sees itself as having gained an advantage with individual observers as a result. Therefore the first question to be examined is whether Scientology is a religion, and what effects that could have for the issues addressed here.

In the official presentations of the Scientology Church, ministers in clerical garb appear wearing Roman collars[96], and are performing a marriage, for example. It is also pointed out that "the services of the Church are open to all religions."[97] Besides the audits and the other practices, which have officially been described as "religious" by the movement, the Scientologists also have "cultic" ceremonies for various life situations[98]. Scientologists participate in these cultic offerings only to some extent, because these ceremonies do not play an important role in their day to day life[99]. They appear more as elements which decorate the Scientology structure, which could be removed without causing any major damage.

Hubbard himself stated that Dianetics was a science, and as such, had no opinion about religion[100], but that Scientology, in contrast, was a religion in the oldest sense of the word. A Policy Letter from the 1960's emphasized that it was very important that all the advertisement as well as the collective literature of the church should reflect the fact that Scientology is a religion[101]. Hubbard made no secret that he also saw in this a means for the defense from criticism expressed for his movement. He specified the circumstance of having the charter and nature which could be considered to be religious as being one of the effective means to counter attacks[102]. Referring to guidelines from internal documents, many former members indicate that the religious status is used primarily for tactical purposes, and is not the result of the actual situation[103].

Several times Hubbard presented Scientology as a continuation of Buddhism, but noted that it exceeded Buddhism by far. From the publications of the Scientologists, it can be deduced that Hubbard could very likely be the Buddha as foretold by the prophet (Maitreya)[104]. This claim of association has led certain authors to qualify the movement as "technological Buddhism"[105]. As appealing as this formula might be, the environment in which Scientology operates is in sharp contrast to Buddhism, and the similarities to Buddhism are mainly of a superficial nature. One could write whole treatises about whether there are connections to earlier religious manifestations, and particularly on whether certain occult theories have influenced Scientology[106]; that, however, is not the object of this investigation.

What is remarkable is the extent to which Scientology persists in its endeavor to be recognized as a religion. It is, without doubt, the only "religion" which seeks to have university experts from numerous countries attest that it is actually a religion. The Scientologists have published several of these attestations, which have given rise to extensive advertisement.

4.1.2 A Hybrid Phenomenon

In view of the considerable bandwidth of religious phenomenon, one could not exclude the possibility that certain forms appear which differ from anything which has existed before. If one considers the developments from a sociological view, certain researchers come to the opinion that Scientology could be a "secularized religion." The sociologist, Bryan Wilson, after drawing up a list of twenty characteristics to define religion, came to the conclusion that Scientology met most of the criteria and therefore fulfilled the conditions necessary, from the sociological perspective, to be defined as a religion; if it were a religion which reflected the many cares of the present society[108].

In contrast to that, on March 22, 1995, the 5th Senate of the Federal Labor Court of Germany decided, on appeal by Scientology to a subordinate decision, that Scientology did not operate as a religion[109]. The Federal Court stated, in its grounds, that self-definition as a religion was not enough to justify a qualification as a religion[110]. Because commercial activity made up a substantial part of the whole operation of Scientology, and because it was inseparably connected with its other dimensions, the court came to the opinion that, in reality, the religious teachings served to disguise the pursuit of commercial goals[111].

Various positions can be taken depending on which perspective or theoretical provisions are assumed - when all is said it done it looks like a religion has been created which has, to some extent, an artificial character. This results, in part, from the tendency of the Scientologists to change their tune according to the circumstance. The "customers" who are addressed on the street are not being told that by filling out "personality test" they are partaking of a religious practice! Nevertheless, in litigation or other difficulties, Scientology persists in maintaining its religious character. That raised the suspicion of a Greek court which handed down a decree in December, 1996 (published in January, 1997) which disbanded the Greek branch of the group. The court stated that the organization presented itself as a religion in several countries, but that it called itself the "Center for Applied Philosophy" in Greece. It was not until after the investigations had been begun in 1995 that the movement presented itself as a persecuted religious minority. Because of that inconsistency, the court decided that the group did not have a uniform profile, but voluntarily changed its label according to place and circumstance[112].

On top of that, one is confronted by a "religion" which, after the initial "personality test," not only charges for most all of its services, but puts its members under somewhat heavy pressure to obtain new services, devices, books, etc.[113].

It is possibly incorrect to want to place Scientology unconditionally in one or another category, because it presents a hybrid phenomenon: for individual members it is a quasi-religious institution, for others an exercise in psychotherapy or a commercial business. The recognition of the hybrid nature of the construction of Scientology (a fact which is, after all, grounded in its history) could be a way to take the discussion out of a blind alley.

Be that as it may, from the state's view, it is not enough for a group to define itself as religious to keep it, ipso facto, out of the area of responsibility of the appropriate agency.

4.2 Conditions for Involvement by the State Security agency[114]

The Federal Constitution guarantees the basic rights of freedom of belief and freedom of conscience (Art. 49) as well as the associated freedom of culture (Art. 50). These rights can be invoked by private persons as well as, in individual cases, by legal entities (such as Scientology) if they are pursuing religious or spiritual goals according to their statutes[115].

4.2.1 Basis

Barring actual indications that the security of the state or its citizens is at risk, the state security agency can not take preventive actions with Scientology (in accordance with Art. 3 of the federal law about measures for the protection of domestic security, BWIS; SR 120). A preventive police operation in regards to Scientology would be permissible if they:

4.2.2 Criminal charges and legal prosecution

The federal authorities could intervene if they had information as to the existence of criminal activity which could investigated by virtue of office or commission. The federal attorney can intervene only for the investigation of a crime which has been committed within its purview (jurisdiction). Most cases which would become court cases in other countries (especially financial crimes) would be handled by the cantons.

In order to prohibit a group such as Scientology, one would have to be able to prove that it dealt as a criminal organization (iaw Article 260th StGB) or that it directly and severely endangered the domestic or foreign security of Switzerland (iaw Art. 102 Ziff. 8 or 10 BV). Of course this could be undertaken only as a last resort.

4.3. Organized Crime? Political Extremism?

4.3.1 Difficulties with the use of the term "organized crime"

The discussion in Germany is not limited to determining whether Scientology would be a religious or a commercial enterprise. With regards to its commercial character, various German experts came to the conclusion that Scientology would be classified as organized crime because the controversial activities of the group are organized to a high degree, because its opponents are systematically intimidated, and because the movement also strives to exert influence on society.

This would be the spot in which to recall the definition of organized crime. "Organized crime" is commonly defined as follows: "crimes committed for profit or power, which individually or in their entirety have considerable effect, and in which two or more participants cooperate for a long or indeterminate period of time in:

  1. application of commercial or business-like structures;
  2. application of force or other means suited for intimidation;
  3. influence peddling in politics, media, public administration, justice or commerce"[117].

At first glance it may not appear entirely nonsensical to submit Scientology to these criteria, especially when the following elements are taken into consideration:

These elements alone, however, are not sufficient enough to draw the conclusion that the category of organized crime is applicable here. There are indications that an in-depth police and legal analysis is needed. Until that is done, evidence of planned, profit or power-oriented commission of crime is lacking. Without that, it cannot be concluded that Scientology is pursuing the goal of committing criminal acts or that it seeks to enrich itself through criminal means (see Art. 260th StGB).

4.3.2 Application of theories about political extremism

German researchers who discuss issues of extremism have suggested tackling sect phenomena (or, more precisely, certain sects) under the aspect of political extremism. They have directed their attention towards recognized totalitarian tendencies and criticize the undemocratic demeanor (lack of democratic structure, veneration of the chief, etc.)[120] of the movement. This method of consideration is not without its problems. Although certain churches have no democratic structure at all, as long as they maintain liberal democratic principles, they need not be placed in the same category as political extremism.

According to an interpretation by Ralf Abel, who produced an opinion for the German State of Schleswig-Holstein, "the human and social concepts of Scientology contradict not only the elementary principles [...] of Basic Law[121], but the action of an absolute "recipe for success," as worked out by Hubbard, amounts to the "creation of a totalitarian dictatorship." He concludes that this way of thinking is incompatible with the state order of Germany or with any other democratic country[122]. In Hamburg, where the well-financed, state-commissioned (1992) Work Group on Scientology actively does its research and which has been faced by numerous attacks by Scientology, the Senate has gathered that "the global strategy of L. Ron Hubbard is to transform the reigning precepts in every country into the "new Scientology society"[124].

4.3.3 A New Form of Political Extremism?

The opinion written by Hans-Gerd Jaschke for the State of Nordrhein- Westfalen especially supports the hypothesis that Scientology would be classified as political extremism[125]. Jaschke tests to what extent Scientology can be defined as "constitutionally hostile." A classification of that sort in Germany enables the intended surveillance by the presiding state security authorities. Jaschke recalls that an organization must pursue political objectives in order to be regarded by law as constitutionally hostile. On first glance, this appears not to be the case with Scientology.

However, based on the study of Scientology literature, Jaschke came to the conclusion that politics is not unimportant, and that one can even find in it numerous political objectives[126]. He alludes to documents which include the directives from WISE which target the takeover of control of the world's economy[127]. He emphasizes, moreover, that information can often be found in the Scientology literature of recent years in which Scientology works out the takeover of control in Germany and endeavors to place its people in key positions[128]. Scientology appears as not only a danger for the freedom of the individual, but also for society and democracy. Jaschke concedes that exact information about this aspect of the movement is lacking, apart from the statements of former members and from journalistic research[129].

Since neither the classic definition of "political extremism" (the adherents do not have an immediate political objective and the organization does not take any clear political position) nor that of "fundamentalism" can be applied to Scientology, Jaschke deems it more sensible to describe it as a "totalitarian organization"[130]. Certain characteristics of Scientology, not just those connected with its claim to a monopoly on truth, justify that classification, in his opinion. The writings of Hubbard arbitrarily classify about 20% of the population as dangerous to the common good[131]. Scientology makes use of an internal justice system which, in regards to self-criticism, is closer to the communist system than to the democratic model[132]. Scientology fends off every criticism and states that any accusation directed against itself is the product of "aberration" and that anyone who voices criticism is a "suppressive person"[133].

The Jaschke opinion determines that Scientology is turning more and more into an organization which pursues long-term political goals, and that the totalitarian characteristics of Scientology's practices and theories present a possible danger[134]. Although the author initially excludes this method of consideration, he finally comes to the conclusion that Scientology possibly embodies a new kind of political extremism which clearly contrasts with both the right and leftist models of extremism[135]. In 1995, the former President of the Federal Office for Constitutional Protection had also mentioned the possibility of a new form of political extremism[136].

It was these considerations which led to Germany critically taking on Scientology. On the 5th and 6th of June, 1997, the Interior Minister's Conference decided to put Scientology under surveillance by the Constitutional Protection agency.

Since the political tradition of Switzerland does not include the concept of Constitutional hostility to this extent, the relationship between Scientology and politics and other points have to be clarified before the relevance of Scientology to state security can be established in Switzerland.

4.3.4 A form of violent extremism?

In contrast to the countries which have extensively developed the institution of constitutional protection, in Switzerland the organized efforts of a group to do away with democracy, human rights or the legal state are not enough to have it put under surveillance by the state security agency. To achieve this goal, additional acts of violence must be committed, advocated or solicited.

The work group does not have any information available which would lead it to believe that any physical application of violence is being applied in conjunction with the Scientology ideology. Before psychological pressure could qualify as the use of force, thereby requiring official intervention, a criminal procedure would have to be called.

4.4. Scientology and Politics

4.4.1 Hubbard and Politics

Nobody has made claims of marked political activity by Scientology[137] or of a political plan which has been precisely worked out by this group. It looks more like an indeterminate yet ambitious project which has, as its goal, the takeover of control in certain countries and, in the long term, the entire world. In Hubbard's work, evidence of possible political ambitions can be found, although these are worded in very general terms. From the beginning there was a "political Dianetics," which was supposed "to serve to free society from any aberration which leads to acts of violence and to war," as well as a "judicial Dianetics, "for the treatment of delinquents who have been under the influence of engrams[138]. "Dianetics will ring in education, medicine, politics and the arts, and all areas of human thought."[139]. He further states that at the present time there is no perfect political system, because "the states are victims of their internal and external aberrations"[140].

A lecture held in Los Angeles on September 5, 1950 shows how Hubbard, never one to pass up grandiose plans, envisioned possible applications of the Scientology teachings at the governmental level. Hubbard did not believe that the mistakes of the past thousands of years could be corrected by revolution because they would then "unfortunately generate the same object in an altered form." From his way of looking at things a living being and society were not comparable to each other, because "there are numerous engrams in a society." He regretted that governments seldom analyzed the situation. They spent their time trying to solve problems with new laws, but each new law led, in turn, to further aberration. He emphasized that bureaucracies do not function, and he delivered extensive commentary about the political developments of the twentieth century, however he did not propose any alternative to them[141].

Later Hubbard solemnly stated that Scientology "held no political or ideological characteristics" [142], and emphasized that Scientologists had a right to belong to any political movement. Of course, there was a restriction that the movement not be disposed to be inimical to Scientology[143]. In another Policy Letter, Hubbard revealed the basis for his political way of thinking:

<From time to time you will hear me speak derisively of governments and ideologies - democracy included.

If anyone believes, when I criticize an ideology, that I am speaking in favor of its opposite, then he has not understood (what I want to say).

Which political system could function with these confused people?>

<There is therefore no reason to assume that any political system is better than any other one used to govern or be governed.

The existing political systems differ from each other only to the extent that they enable individuals to develop themselves and to gain a higher level of [spiritual] health and personal abilities.>

<Scientology is our first chance to have a true democracy.>

<In Scientology we confirm daily that an individual freed from his aberrations behaves more respectably towards his fellow citizens [...] the first true democracy will come about when we have freed every individual from his worst reactive drives.>[144]

4.4.2 Projects by Scientology for the reformation of Switzerland

The views expressed by Hubbard show that he does think very much of the existing systems. However, they do not prove that Scientology is working to take over political control of this planet[145]. To be sure there are more recent texts - even among the Swiss Scientologists - which verify the intention to take over control of society. Since texts of this sort, by definition, are not meant to be broadly distributed, the total number is difficult to estimate.

A document of this sort is a letter of May 29, 1988 with the title "Open Letter to all OT's in Switzerland," which is signed by Allan J(...). Excerpts from this four-page document:

"With OT8, which is delivered and published by International Management, LRH (Hubbard) has changed the face of earth anew. With the release of the first true standards for OT, the moment has arrived to construct an OT civilization, as Ron has foreseen [sic] this for us."

"Our future has arrived. We are the first clear country on the planet. That is a fact, and you have done this. Without you we would have achieved nothing. In the words of Ron in his PL (Policy Letter), revision of March 19, 1968, WE DO THE WORK:


"From today until 1993 we need 1,000 Scientologists up to OT7 and higher. In order to reach that operating level, we need 10,000 clears and 100,000 new onlookers on the bridge. [...] we have to see to it that the tech(nology) of LRH is put into society and is applied with 100 percent standard results. With this flow to the top of the bridge we will develop and blossom, and we will have a cleared country. To put the tech in our society we first concentrate on one canton; when LRH and his tech are accepted there, we go to another canton."

"Our ideal stage contains much ACTION, plenty of people going up the Bridge, Orgs and Mission which are expanding like crazy [...]; OT's who pass on the training techniques to schools and universities, governments which pass laws in which teachers are forbidden to permit students to go past misunderstood words[146], hospitals which demand the purification tech [...], judges who require the SP/PTS technology[147], and ethical principles which are applied in the prisons and in which their directors, police officers and social workers are instructed; [...] Psychiatrists, drugs, electroshock devices will be declared illegal; every family will have at least one Cl(ass) IV auditor; every city block will have an ethics officer available; atomic weapons will be destroyed and the military disbanded; children, independent of their skin color, race or religious affiliation laughing and playing with each other and even a very productive and unpolluted world, where honest people have rights ... and so use the goals which LRH has for Scientology."

This project was not merely a transient dream of a single member, but represents the ideas of the most ardent Scientologists in Switzerland. This is evidenced by another document, which had been worked out in structured form and which revision of August 1996[149] is available to the work group. A few excerpts:

"Goal. - Switzerland is the first cleared country of this planet. Switzerland is the country in which Scientology and the LRH technology can thrive and bloom unhindered in all areas of life. Switzerland is the country where each individual can fully develop his abilities and quickly become OT."

"Purpose. - 1. In the area of the Scientology Churches: all organizations will be accepted by the population, be of Saint Hill size[150], and be expanding in size and number. (...)

4. In the area of publicity work: L. Ron Hubbard, Dianetics and Scientology are accepted and valued by the population. Every Scientology can proudly point out that he belongs. (...)

7. In the area of drug rehabilitation: a Switzerland without drugs. Drug and medication abuse are prohibited. The anti-drug campaign and Narconon Drug Rehabilitation are acknowledged and are generally recommended and supported.

8. In the area of mental hygiene: there are no more psychiatrists. Psychiatrists have conformed to the rules of CCHR and seek new employment.

9. In the area of criminal rehabilitation: the technology of LRH will be applied in prisons. The Criminon programs[151] are the recognized programs in Switzerland.

10. In the area of education and training: every child may develop himself fully. Education and school management acknowledge the teachings and recommend LRH study technology. LRH technology will be applied at all levels: private schools, vocational schools, public schools, teacher seminars, universities, continuing education. (...)

14. In the area of law: policies and justice directives by LRH are acknowledged and applied. Legal disputes will be settled through the application of LRH policies under WISE.

15. In the area of finance: Switzerland is the first country without income taxes. The sales tax has been introduced. Good production will be rewarded by the state. LRH policies on finance will be acknowledged and applied on all levels.

16. In the area of morality: The Way to Happiness[152] is the recognized code of morals in Switzerland. Companies, institutions, association, unions, political parties, etc. receive and distribute "The Way to Happiness."[153]

If there were a perceptible sign that the Scientologists had actually found a way to bring about such a project, the affected society would have to react and create a defense against this movement. Are the goals of Scientology to be regarded as the expression of a project which is on the path to realization, or is it simply one more Utopia among many others?

The study of new religious movements and other comparable groups shows that several of them have specific projects concerning society. However, these are at most a dream, a Utopia with an undefined outline, a hope for a society that would be perfectly taken over by their ideals. This kind of Utopia has a motivational effect upon its members. The suspense as to whether such a project could be realized enhances the enthusiasm of the adherents.

It becomes dangerous[154] only when a group actually tries to complete their utopian project with subversive means; otherwise it remains a mental exercise. With Scientology the ideal of a cleared country "here and now" appears more likely to belong to a repertoire of themes to promote enthusiasm. George Malko had already confirmed the theme of a "cleared" planet in his book about Scientology which he published in 1970. The author reported of a Scientologist who explained to him that the goal of the movement was to "clear" the planet within ten years:

<I suddenly understood that the ten years had to have been figured from the point of his joining. There was no fixed date. It was a matter of something constant, persevering, so that anybody who joined the movement could give himself the ultimate reason to live: from today we will have saved the planet within ten years.>[155].

The goal projected for 1993 in the text cited above from 1988 was missed by a long shot. The text from 1992 is worded much more carefully and avoids citing an actual date. This appears to confirm that this is mainly a matter of slogans to motivate the adherent.

On the other hand, former members confirm that certain areas of society have been systematically infiltrated[156]. The possibility that infiltration which targets governmental structure is occurring today cannot be ruled out. However, the work group does not have sufficient hard evidence of such activity[157].

4.4.3 The "Justice" of the Scientologists

A problem associated with the operating principles of Scientology raises important questions: the existing internal justice system, called "ethics" in Scientology.

In 1959, Hubbard published a "Manual of Justice." The tone it assumes stays the same from the start: "People attack Scientology, I never forget it, always even the score."[158] According to Hubbard, "justice" for a Scientologist is divided into four stages: intelligence activities, investigation of evidence, judgment or punishment, and rehabilitation[159]. These four stages are dealt with one after the other. Intelligence activity, he stated, has as its purpose the creation of a dossier with information on various people, data which could be of use some day, and until then is to be carefully maintained.

If such dossiers are not at hand, one has to look further, and even if valid facts are not found, emphasizes Hubbard, the mere fact of carrying out the investigation achieves results, since the targeted person will be intimidated. However, everything has to be done according to certain rules: "Investigation is the careful discovery and sorting of facts. Without good investigation we don't have justice, we have random vengeance."[160] If need be, it sometimes pays to hire a private detective for the investigation, for example, to research the private life of a journalist so that he can be intimidated[161]. As soon as the investigation is concluded, it is time to talk "rights":

"None of us like to judge or to punish. Yes we may be the only people on Earth with a right to punish-since we can undo the damage we do in most cases. Therefore never punish beyond our easy ability to remedy by auditing and restoration.

"Judging must be done on the basis of clear-cut evidence and the person to be guilty must be guilty beyond reasonable doubt. Only then, punish.

"Guilt is established by a person's actions and statements, by witnesses and written evidence and by an expertly run E-meter. A person can be guilty without realizing he did wrong. What criminal ever does realize how wrong his actions are?"[162]

Although it was mainly a matter of "justice" administration inside the organization, Hubbard's proposals were the seed for all further offshoots which served as the basis for a new Scientology mental perspective which exhibited characteristics of a totalitarian system. The conviction that somebody could be guilty even without him being aware of it proves this in an ominous manner.

In the course of the ensuing years Hubbard worked mainly on "security checks." "Security checks" are lists of questions which are asked with the assistance of an electrometer. The device is supposed to register crimes or lies committed by the interrogated person in this or prior lives. The work group is in possession of the approximately 400 questions of the "Sec Check Whole Track"[163], which is supposed to be used to investigate prior lives, and therefore contains some unexpected questions:

The answers concerning earlier lives could hardly be used against the person who confessed to such "crimes," however, things would be different with the information from the present lifetime. This data can be filed in the individual dossiers maintained by the Scientologists and be misused, even though the movement protests that this data is protected as a "religious secret."

A member of the work group had occasion to look at documents confiscated by American police officials in 1970 which prove that auditing dossiers of various people have been used as a source of information. Security checks as such were officially done away with by Hubbard in 1968[164]. However, former members assert that the name, only, was changed, while the list of questions produced by Hubbard in 1960 was still being used[165]. According to confidential sources, results are subsequently sent to the headquarters of the movement in the United States.

Hubbard continued to be interested in matters of "justice" even after the appearance of his handbook in 1959:

<Only criminal-minded people want a society in which the criminal can do and have happen what he wants to.

Only criminal-minded people shy away from justice and protest and complain that it exists.>[166]

Hubbard also defined the rights of members in the area of "justice," for example, the chances that a person who thinks he has suffered an injustice has to complain[167]. He announced that "amnesties" could be used in Scientology, a practice which is still in force[168]. In April, 1965, he announced that the word "justice" would be replaced by "ethics" in his writings. The essence of the system would not be changed; it would continue to develop. According to Hubbard's definition, "ethics" is an "additional, indispensable tool which enables the technology of Scientology to be applied"[170]. For that reason, one can say that it and the interests of Scientology are inseperably connected. It is further defined a a "rational path which leads to the highest level of survival for an individual, the future of the race, the group, humanity and all other commonly affected actions"[171].

Scientology defines four general categories of misdeeds and crimes: the error, the misdemeanor, the crime and the high crime. The error is the minor, unintentional mistake, for example, the administrative error, which does not result in financial loss"[172]. When the mistake is repeated, though, it could fall into the category of misdemeanor; these are listed on more than two pages: these are a matter of disobedience, such as not having revealed a position held in a psychiatric clinic, of an insufficient or worsening income or activities in a section, a unit, a department, an organization, a sector or a division"[173]. Listed under crimes are not only theft and other acts of violence, but also "organizing or calling a meeting, [....] in order to protest the instructions of a superior," "refusing to submit to discipline," and "mixing Scientology with another practice with which it is not connected"[174]. Under "high crimes" are "publicly leaving Scientology and other actions of this sort[175]. For each kind of punishable action or crime an internal sanction is proscribed (transfer to a subordinate post, a decrease in income, etc.).

Scientology ethics defines two types of person who hinder the development of the movement: the "suppressive person" (SP), and the "potential trouble source" (PTS).

A POTENTIAL TROUBLE SOURCE is defined as a person who, even though he belongs to the Scientologists [....] still remains in contact with a suppressive person or group.

A SUPPRESSIVE PERSON or GROUP is a person or group which actively tries to suppress Scientology or a Scientologist or to harm them through suppressive actions.

SUPPRESSIVE ACTIONS are actions intended to stop or destroy Scientology or Scientologists[176].

The list of suppressive actions is found in the small book, "Introduction to Scientology Ethics" on three long pages. Beside "murder," "mutiny," and "sexual perversions" are listed "public statements against Scientology or Scientologists," "hostile testimony meant to destroy Scientology in connection with a public or governmental investigation," "organizing a dissident group which uses Scientology data in whole or in part," "delivering a Scientologist at the request of civil justice without undertaking his defense or protesting against it"[177].

All that leads to personal consequences for Scientologists, because "an actual suppressive person or group has no rights as a Scientologist and actions taken against him will not be punished by the ethics regulations of Scientology"[178]. "Potential Trouble Sources" (PTS) includes, in particular, people who maintain a relationship "through family or other connections" to a person who is hostile to Scientology[179]. These people could be "suppressive spouses or parents who do not belong to Scientology, or [....] other family members, [...] hostile groups or even [...] close friends[180].

The way prescribed by Hubbard to solve this problem (if the opponent of Scientology does not improve himself) is simple. The Scientologist who becomes "PTS" on the basis of his contact with a person who has been categorized as hostile must make a disconnection, which means break off all contact. One can imagine what kind of consequences that would have inside of a family. That was one of the items of which the official New Zealand investigative commission was critical in their report of 1969. In a letter of March 26, 1969, Hubbard assured the Commission that this practice had been cancelled several months prior[181]. This letter was welcomed by the Commission; however it regretted that Hubbard did not oblige himself never again to introduce the practice[182].

Three years later another official investigative commission in South Africa determined that Scientology had harmful or potentially harmful practices, and recommended that Scientology practices, such as disconnection and security checks be made illegal[183]. Even though disconnection was officially cancelled in 1968, it is still very difficult for a Scientologist to maintain direct relations with a person or a group which qualifies as "suppressive": the principle of disconnection, as defined by Hubbard, remains valid[184].

The fate provided by Hubbard for the "suppressive person" was worse yet: these would be, declared Hubbard, "fair game"[185]. They were to have no rights of any sort; their homes and anything they owned would not be protected under the rules of Scientology[186]. The practice of declaring these people "fair game" was cancelled in 1968, however this was in word only:

<The practice of declaring these people fair game is ended. Fair game may no longer appear in any ethics order. That causes bad public relations.

This policy letter does not cancel any policy regarding the treatment or handling of SPs.>[187].

According to sworn testimony taken on March 7, 1994, from Vicki Aznaran, who was one of the management figures of the movement until 1987, the cancellation of fair game was a matter of vocabulary and public relations. The practice against the enemies of Scientology remained the same, and any action taken against them was justified in the eyes of the movement[188]. Even if these politics were to be accommodated to some degree, they still shed a less than flattering light upon a movement that portrays itself as "religious." Of course this practice could also be seen to be part of an internal control system; a type of ritual which is meant to subjugate and punish the "sinner" in respect to his complete reassumption into the group, and at the same time an attempt to protect the group from outside "aggression"[189] at any cost. It can, however, be shown that the consequences produced by this can go beyond the internal life of the group. Moreover, the system is strongly reminiscent of a type of parallel justice.

The work group has examined a report resulting from an internal Scientology investigation in the case of a "suppressive person" in Switzerland. Apparently a "Committee of Evidence" was held to state whether a person was guilty or not guilty of accusations based on a list of offenses according to Hubbard. Regardless of whether these accusations had really been justified or not, the impression one has after having read the document is that this is a convenient means of blaming the individual for results that arise out of the practice (pressure to raise the statistics, etc.) The problem lies in the practice itself. The process [committee of evidence] is somewhere between an inquisition and a civil court.

Religious groups have their own internal justice system to some extent (for instance the Ecclesiastical Court of the Roman Catholic Church). However there is a major difference with Scientology: an Ecclesiastical Court will not sentence someone because he has not been efficient or productive enough; it will concern itself with theological or similar questions. The explanation that the "offenses," as they are defined in Scientology, are of the same nature, is only partly correct.

The jargon used is also informative. A church would accuse a disloyal adherent of "heresy." In contrast Scientology consciously uses a vocabulary straight from the world of law: "misdemeanor," "crime"[190]. This is a matter of actual and intentional exchange of words for the purpose of obliterating boundaries of definition. The entire thing creates a margin of error to the harm of Scientology opponents, who in the final stage are branded lawless criminals.

4.4.4 A paranoid idea of "opponent"?

Even if the Scientologists dream that one day all courts will use the "ethical" principles defined by Hubbard, at the moment it is a matter of them restricting their legal talk to situations which directly concern them. One can recognize in the text of the Manual of Justice from 1959 that Hubbard was working out this system as a means of opposing presumed dangers from the side of "enemy" force, that means anything which got in his way. It is very important to take this "defensive" dimension of the developed system[191] into consideration. For this reason a few aspects of Hubbard's personality will be explained cursorily, because they have a direct connection to this issue. Hubbard was actually convinced that monstrous plots had been launched against him. This manifested itself in a famous lecture he gave in September, 1967, and in which he detailed the following:

Our enemies on this planet are less than twelve men. . . . They own and control newspaper chains, and they are, oddly enough, in all the mental health groups which have sprung up in the world.

. . . Being in control of most of the gold supplies of the planet, they entered upon a program of bringing every government to bankruptcy and under their thumb, so that no government would be able to act politically without their permission.

The rest of their apparent program was to use mental health (that is, psychiatric electric shock and prefrontal lobotomy) to remove from their path any political dissenters.[192]

In the eyes of the adherents, any opposition to Scientology is the result of a conspiracy by psychiatrists who play a particularly dangerous role from Hubbard's view, and whom he therefore never passed up a chance to mention. Since 1950 he considered the "psychiatric- psychological- psychoanalytic clique" as the source of almost all attacks against Scientology[193]. Hubbard had apparently never come to terms with the initial criticism by the mental health experts for his book "Dianetics." Because of this he integrated the animosity that he felt for psychiatrists into his system, and transformed them into his "cosmic opponents."[194] Presenting himself as the victim of a widespread conspiracy served as a perceived means of validation. This phenomenon is also found in the paranoid presentation of other small groups. Hubbard's success in building his contrived concepts into his system is amazing in that they are also shared by his adherents. The psychiatrists have not been the only ones whom Hubbard has raised to the status of privileged opponent.

The other target is Interpol. A major portion of the diffuse, long-term criticism of this institution has its origins in Scientology[195]. Hubbard perceived Interpol as the source of a certain number of attacks against Scientology. The Scientologists continue to think that behind the "worldwide campaign" against Scientology lies a "small group of influential psychiatrists" who feed the media false reports. These are then put into governmental folder and dossiers, then distributed throughout the entire world by Interpol[196].

This concept of conspiracy is stamped into the manner which the Scientology adherents have of getting along with other people. Anyone who wants to understand the internal logic of this must realize that Hubbard's concept of an opponent is one which excludes the option that Scientology could be wrong or that criticism could be justified. Many regard an opponent as criminal (after all he hinders the only "technology" which could really help mankind), whose criminal past is only waiting to be discovered. This is applied to groups and institutions as well as to individuals. A passage from Hubbard pointedly describes how he pictures the opponents of Scientology and which methods he recommends to render them ineffective:

Every time we have investigated the background of a critic of Scientology we have found crimes for which that person or group could be imprisoned under existing law. We do not find critics of Scientology who do not have criminal pasts. [...]

Criminals hate anything that helps anyone instinctively. And just as instinctively a criminal fights anything that may disclose his past. [...]

The way we handle the situation now is simplicity itself and we are winning.

We are slowly and carefully teaching the unholy a lesson. It is as follows: "We are not a law enforcement agency. BUT we will become interested in the crimes of people who seek to stop us. If you oppose Scientology we promptly look up -- and will find and expose your crimes. If you leave us alone we will leave you alone." It's very simple.[197]. Even a fool can grasp that. And don't underrate our ability to carry it out.

Our business is helping people to lead better lives. We even help those who have committed crimes for we are not here to punish. But those who try to make life hard for us are at once at risk.

We are only interested in doing our job. And we are only interested in the crimes of those who try to prevent us from doing our work.

There is no good reason to oppose Scientology. [...]

Never discuss Scientology with the critic. Just discuss his or her crimes, known or unknown. And act completely confident that those crimes exist. Because they do.[198].

4.5 Scientology and intelligence operations

4.5.1 From "Guardian's Office" to "Office of Special Affairs"

So Scientology resolved to seek out all the "crimes" of their opposition and to expose them -- even government positions were not excluded from this. Since 1966, the mission of the "Guardian's Office" (GO) included dealing with everything worldwide which could upset Scientology's activities. The members of this Scientology department were specially trained in interrogation and infiltration techniques.

In 1973, Operation "Snow White" was launched. Its goal was to slip into American governmental offices in order to obtain documents which could interest Scientology. Over a period of months the Scientology spies succeeded in copying tens of thousands of pages of secret and confidential information, and at least in one case, in planting a secret microphone at a meeting of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS).

However, on one June evening in 1976, FBI agents caught two of the Scientology spies as they were in the process of conducting their illegal operation (they had caught the attention of an employee with their suspicious conduct). Since they could not be charged with anything, they were let go. However, the FBI pursued the matter further and they were able to retrace their path.

In one raid in which approximately 150 agents participated, the FBI undertook its largest operation on July 7, 1977. Tens of thousands of Scientology's documents on file were seized from the premises of the Scientology Churches in Los Angeles and and Washington. They were put together with testimony from remorseful members of the GO to reveal details of the operations which had been conducted by the Scientology intelligence service for several years. These operations had been conducted not only against government offices, but also against individual people who had been critically disposed toward Scientology, for example against the journalist Paulette Cooper, who had published a work in 1971 entitled "The Scandal of Scientology." The Scientology intelligence service had spied on her and endeavored to unjustifiably incriminate her. Several Scientologists, among them Hubbard's wife (who held the post of "Guardian") were sentenced to prison in 1979 for their role in this operation.

A nearly 300 page judgment documented the entire situation[199]. Numerous documents were published in connection with the investigation which which permitted conclusions to be made about the methods of operation of the Scientology intelligence service. The documents reviewed by this work group were very informative. For example, here is a "Guardian Order" mentioned from October 21, 1974 which contains precise instructions on how an agent could infiltrate an office of the IRS in Los Angeles so that he could seize all files about Hubbard and Scientology - another agent was assigned the same mission in Washington. A "Guardian Program Order" of December 5, 1975 ordered the infiltration of several federal offices with the goal of constructing an "early warning system" so as to be informed in a timely fashion about offensives taken against Scientology. Exact instructions were obtained as to the manner of procedure. Rewards were provided for good results. The numerous documents on the activities of a private intelligence service contrast markedly with those of a "church."

This affair was not the only one of the sort. In 1983, in the course of an investigation against Scientology for tax evasion and other offenses, the Ontario Police confiscated several hundred thousand pages of documents from the Scientology offices in Toronto. Review of the documents showed that many documents originated from governmental or private sources and could have only been obtained by the group through use of illegal methods. In 1992 a Canadian court sentenced the Scientology Church and three people. It gave Scientology a fine of $250,000.

The internal investigation showed that Scientologists had been positioned in the police force, attorney's offices, medical associations and in the Office of the Attorney General of Ontario to steal documents and pass the information on to Scientology; the Scientology plants were all employed in lower positions, but they still had access to the documents. The court declared that the movement had shown no remorse at all in this affair, but had only tried to shift responsibility to those who had carried out the action at the behest of high-ranking representatives. The case has resulted in retaliatory acts by Scientology against their opponent as they tried to discredit the attorney with lawsuits. This led to a counter-suit and Scientology was sentenced to pay a sum of more than two million dollars; apparently the highest ever award made in a slander procedure. In unanimous judgment of May, 1994, the Appeals Court of Ontario came to the decision that Scientology had intentionally brought false charges against the attorney for the purpose of slander.

The operations conducted by Scientology in Canada and in the United States, as classic espionage operations, were enough to pique the attention of the presiding state security agency. Had these kind of practices been carried out in other countries (or are they still being carried out) without having been discovered?

In a statement made in February, 1994, by David Miscavige in the course of a dispute between the Scientology Church and Steven Fishman[200] he, as the current President of the RTC, repeated the attitude held by Scientology in this issue. He said the GO had acted completely autonomously in the 1970's with unlimited power and without supervision. That is how the agents conducted "illegal programs," such as the infiltration of governmental offices and had employed "unscripulous means against people who they perceived as enemies of the church." This was in complete contradiction to the fundamentals of Scientology, asserted Miscavige. In 1981, he added, an investigation by the Church of the activities of the GO had taken place, and this investigation "had confirmed our worst suspicions." After a lengthy internal struggle the GO was finally disbanded in 1983. The legal mission was taken over by the Office of Special Affairs (OSA), which, in contrast to the GO was not an "autonomous group." The church has produced a complete listing of the people who had worked for the GO and sees to it that none who had been involved in the dubious affairs are hired by the Church. 800 staff of the GO were completely relieved of their duties.

Former members reply to this that the disbanding of the GO fundamentally changed nothing and that the same work is being continued by the OSA.

4.5.2 Hubbard's Fundamentals

A consistent ideology tends to have consistent results. This sense is illustrated by documents from the 1960's which continue to be valid in the eyes of the Scientologists. The first of these documents is a Policy Letter from 1960 which concerns the Department of Government Affairs (predecessor of the Guardian's Office) role in how to resolve legal and tax problems. Here are several excerpts from this document:

The object of the department is to broaden the impact of Scientology upon governments and other organizations [...]; defensive tactics are frowned upon in this department [...] Only attacks resolve threats.

In the face of danger from governments or courts, there are only two errors one can make: (a) do nothing and (b) defend. The right things to do with any threat are to (1) find out if we want to play the offered game or not (2) if not, to derail the offered game with a feint or attack upon the most vulnerable point which can be disclosed in the enemy ranks (3) make enough threat or clamor to cause the enemy to quail (4) don't try to get any money out of it (5) make every attack by us also sell Scientology and (6) win. If attacked on some vulnerable point by anyone or anything or any organization, always find or manufacture enough threat against them to cause them to sue for peace. [...] Don't ever defend. Always attack.

The goal of the department is to bring the government and hostile philosophies or societies into a state of complete compliance with the goals of Scientology. This is done by high-level ability to control and in its absence by low-level ability to overwhelm. Introvert such agencies. Control such agencies. Scientology is the only game on Earth where everybody wins. [201].

In 1961 another Policy Letter founded a "Department of Official Affairs," whose special mission it was to create a picture unfavorable to the public of any group or person who opposed Scientology[202], exert continual pressure on the government to get it to enact pro-Scientology legislation, and to diffuse the momentum of opposing tendencies as well as producing dossiers on the opposition[204].

Hubbard saw in this department "the equivalent of a Ministry of Propaganda and Security" and wanted to use it to strengthen the position of the movement to the point where a "pro-Scientology government" existed[205]. In order to fulfill its mission, the department had to find friends and associates of influential persons[206]. All instructions show that the idea was to win the "head": for example it was more important to befriend the newspaper publisher than it was a journalist[207]. It had to do with determining who the key figures were and then influencing them. That goes up to the infiltration of the governmental level, when this is possible:

The action of bringing about a pro-Scientology government consists of making a friend of the most highly placed government person one can reach, even placing Scientologists in domestic and clerical posts close to him [...] [208].

The strategy also consists of placing members in subordinate positions in the area of the person responsible. If such practices are to be applied again, then this model is probably the one which will be followed.

Of course the large traditional religions could also have the desire to influence the political structure of a country. The problem with Scientology is not their wish to influence society with their fundamentals (however debatable those may be), but their method of proceeding about it. The internal texts of the group which were written by their founder and which have permanent validity praise the strategy of infiltration, the disparagement of opponents and the furtive takeover of control. One can hardly help from getting the impression that the methods used are more those of an intelligence agency than of a religion. Especially if it happens, or continues to happen that the group is involved in politics and nobody knows whose basic principle of infiltration or espionage operation is being contained.

4.5.3 Procedures Still Valid

The question must no doubt be asked as to whether these principles are still valid. Are the methods of procedure which were defined in the over 35 year old policies which have never been cancelled still being applied? Today it is certain that this is the case. On June 9, 1995, a search was conducted by the Greek police on the premises of the movement in Athens. In connection with this operation an Executive Directive (dated August 26, 1995, revised on September 2, 1995) came to be in the possession of the police.

It was described in this document how to react in this situation so that the movement could stay in and continue to expand in Greece[209]. It included a list of instructions to the Department of Special Affairs (DSA) in Greece. One assignment in particular was to conduct a thorough investigation into a known Scientology opponent (a Greek Orthodox priest) in order to "expose his crimes," and to develop information sources in governmental levels in order to be forewarned of new operations in a timely enough manner[210]. So that they would be in a position to correctly proceed, the members of DSA Greece were to study six documents in advance .. among them the two Policy Letter which were cited above! That proves with full clarity that the instructions have never lost their applicability.

The operation outlined by the Executive Directive in the summer of 1995 is impressive because of its systematic, highly organized character (which is wholly compatible with the documents confiscated in the United States during the "Operation Snow White" in the 1970's. DSA Greece was to maintain tight security measures. They were to stay in contact with the DSA in other countries in order to exchange information[211]. They were to gather information on their opponents, and infiltrate their ranks, if possible[212]. They were to find out what exactly was the role of the special unit inside of the Greek police in regard to sects. They were to hire a private detective to closely examine the life of their main opponent and "discover any crime in which he was involved or had been in the past.[213]. The information gathered was to be used to give the newspapers information about the activities of the opponents[214]. Moreover, a whole series of measures were listed which were meant to improve the public appearance of the movement in Greece and to ensure that their various active operations would development optimally.

4.5.4 The Situation in Switzerland

The documents confiscated in Greece prove that members of Scientology still engage in activities which are very similar to those of intelligence agencies[215]. Are such practices also being conducted in a Swiss environment? This does not appear to be impossible, since there is also a DSA in Switzerland. Because of the unsettling observation that opponents are being monitored in Switzerland, the possibility that this is happening can not be completely dismissed. However, public proof for such (secret) activities is lacking.

A church work group involved with the new religious movements found out that the secretary was sending session minutes to a member of Scientology. However, this is poorly suited as an argument since it took place in the early 1980's during a time frame for which Scientology already has said that it had cleaned house.

However, a Geneva police inspector, who was involved with Scientology as a result of his duties, received a surprise visit on May 23, 1996 from an American private detective[216]. The detective had been sent by the American management of Scientology and had the assignment of investigating the relationship between the movement and the Geneva authorities. At the meeting the inspector came into possession of one of the pages from the detective's dossier. This fragment showed that the group had been trying to find out which individuals from the Geneva Justice and Police departments were involved with Scientology.

What can be concluded from all this? Apparently Scientology is carrying out activities equivalent to those of an intelligence service to inform itself of its environment[217]. However, the study of past and present documents and the analysis of the written texts and practices show that the activities have never gotten to the point of an actual strategy for the takeover of power, but present, rather, a directed means of self-defense through ideologically excessive concepts.

Do activities by Scientology call for intervention by the state security agency? German experts have had the opinion for several years that the conditions for placing Scientology under surveillance by their state security have been met[218]; those who disagree have the opinion that this is just a type of "make-work" project for the Federal Office of Constitutional Protection (BfV), and that deployment of state security constitutes misuse[219]. A general decision to place the movement under surveillance in Switzerland would doubtlessly end in the same dispute, and not because one has any special sympathy for the movement, but in view of possible consequences arising from the specific case of Scientology.

No other reliable statements about the activity of Scientology is available from publicly accessible sources.

4.6 Extra-curiculae: The situation in Germany

a) Legal Disputes

In Germany the fight between the state position and Scientology is mainly one of status. Scientology persistently tries to be recognized as a religious or philosophical community in the sense of Basic Law. In contrast, German courts tend to judge that it is more of an institution for the marketing of goods whose religious expression is only to be considered as a pretext.

b) Scientology: An Object of German State Security

In January, 1997, Baden-Wurttemberg became the first German state to have Scientology put under surveillance by state security.

With its decision of June 6, 1997, the Interior Minister's Conference confirmed that Scientology presented reference points of an effort against the liberal democratic basic order and had thereby met the legal provisions for surveillance of an organization by the federal and state offices for state security.

The following goal was viewed as anti-democratic: to attain a "new civilization" in which only "honest (as determined by the organization) people" or "non-aberrated" people have rights, furthermore, that executive, legislative and judicial posts should only be held by Scientology functionaries who would remove essential principles of democracies such as distribution of power and sovereignty of the people[220].

The German security officials have gained realization of the absolute formulation needed by Scientology to do away with all human rights for the remaining members of society. This offense against the equal rights basic law and human dignity, as well as the instructions of Scientology, to remove other- and counter- intentions from the world, the demand for total discipline and the statements of former members about Scientology's conduct towards critics bring about an expectation that freedom of expression and the right to life and physical inviolability would be done away with. The absolute claims of Scientology (that only individuals liberated from evil reactive impulses have the right to vote in a Scientology democracy and take part in elections) leaves no room for other political parties or a parliamentary opposition.

c) Findings of German State Security

One sees that Scientology in Germany is directed primarily from the centers in the USA and the European centers in East Grinstead, GB and Copenhagen, DK.

The activity of Scientology in Germany consists overwhelming of the effort to recruit new members, and sell courses along with the accompanying training materials to the members. Previous findings do not confirm the assumption that Scientology is systematically penetrating business or civil service as an organization. Neither have they succeeded in placing a large number of members into civil service.

Activities of the Office of Special Affairs (OSA), the Scientology security service have been confirmed only to a minor extent, for example in setting up demonstrations and internal events, but also in intentional persecution of critics. By doing that Scientology has repeatedly tried to gain influence and control in politics by using means which are, to some extent, illicit.

d) Political Effects

Scientology seeks larger echoes in the media. After the decision by the ministries of the interior, Germany found itself confronted with the crude accusation of using methods from the Nazi and Holocaust era to persecute the organization[221].

In November 1997 the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the US House of Representatives decided upon a proposal which would require the President to express his concern about the violation of rights of religious minorities in Germany.

In April, 1998, a Special Report of the United Nations[222] dismissed the assertion by Scientology that its members were persecuted in Germany with Nazi methods. It hinted, however, that a climate of distrust and latent intolerance reigned against Scientology.

On June 19, 1998, the Enquete Commission[223] of the German Parliament presented its report, "So-called Sects and Psycho-groups."

It essentially pointed out that new religious movements and ideological communities and psycho-groups do not present a danger for state and society. With respect to business, the investigation revealed that there was no possibility of the infiltration of the economy. It was also stated that individual groups, however, had shown a high potential for political conflict. The establishment of a federal agency was recommended in the report, and its purpose would be to research new religious movements and psycho-groups. That was supposed to lay the legal foundation for state promotion of private information centers. The Commission recommended that in the next legislative session a law regarding commercial "life management assistance" be passed; there is also a proposal by the Federal Council.

A [minority] opposing vote[224] criticized the recommendations of the Commission's majority as being too far-reaching.

Although it was not the Commission's mission to evaluate individual communities and groups (no "black list" of questionable organizations was produced), Scientology held a special role, according to the Commission. It was not regarded as a religious organization. The Commission recommended that Scientology continue to be observed by both the federal and state security agencies. Debate in the German Parliament is to decide whether Scientology has not given up its anti-constitutional goals.


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