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The Genesis of the "Scientology Church"

Somebody tells lies because he fears the consequences of telling the truth. [...] So the liar, by necessity, is a coward, and a coward is, by necessity, a liar.
L. Ron Hubbard [1]

Science Fiction[2]

It all began in 1954 with Hubbard's book, Dianetics, the Modern Science of Mental Health, which was printed by a textbook publishing house and sold 150,000 copies within the first six months.

At the time, Hubbard was known mainly as a science fiction author, a description of him frequently used to discount his credibility. This lies in the difference in the meaning of science fiction between the USA and German speaking countries. Therefore, it seems that a short explanation of the connection with science fiction would be appropriate here.

As the name implies, science fiction is a combination of science and fiction. This fiction is based on scientific discoveries, which include the purely theoretical as well as the actual. From this the author develops the material for his novel.

In the mid-1930's in the USA, science fiction gained strongly in popularity, and turned from a type of trivial literature into a type of respected literature. At the time, Hubbard wrote not only under his own name, but also under various pseudonyms for one of the more significant science fiction magazines of that time, "Astounding Science Fiction," which had been under the direction of John W. Campbell, Jr. since 1937.

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Scientific and popular scientific discussion of all possible subjects could be found in this monthly periodical.

Science fiction gained popularity after the Second World War in the USA because the readers saw that many technical achievements predicted by the science fiction writers were coming about - space travel, electronic computers, atomic energy, gene-splicing technology. Hubbard's stories appeared side by side with the stories of the greats (Fritz Lieber, Isaac Asinov and Lyon Sprague De Camp.)

After the appearance of his book, Dianetics, he published other reports on this subject in science fiction magazines with authors of this type. The publishing company of the magazine ran advertisements for his book. It may be assumed, then, that technically inclined people who were interested in developing their future were the ones most inclined to get involved with Dianetics.

Discounting Hubbard because of his activity as a science fiction author is inappropriate, and must be regarded as a cheap effect which belongs in the same category with calling Ronald Reagan a "former actor."

A Biography and its Contradictions

Some Scientologists have been asking why Scientology has not managed to publish a detailed biography of L. Ron Hubbard (March 13, 1911 to January 24. 1986). At the very least, this should have been undertaken soon after his death. Meanwhile, almost ten years have gone by, but a biography still has not appeared.

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It likely will not appear, because the version of Hubbard's life published by Scientology apparently does not contain the whole truth.

Instead of hearing the truth, Scientologists are fended off with individual accounts which contain many embellishments, but relatively few definitive facts.

During my attempt to sate my hunger for information, I came across two books in the English speaking world from which I have never recovered. One is called A Piece of Blue Sky[3], and was written in 1990 by former Scientologist Jon Atack. The other appeared in 1987 under the title of Bare-Faced Messiah[4], written by British author Russell Miller. Documented with numerous footnotes from official papers, letters, and even excerpts from Hubbard's diary he kept as a youth, these books present a picture of Hubbard which does not correspond at all with what Scientologists have been hearing for years. Hubbard's grandiosity crumbles piece by piece.

Especially prominent in the official biographies are events from Hubbard's early life which express an interest in human understanding and his meetings with Navy doctor Joseph Thompson. At the time, Hubbard was twelve years old. Scientology states that Hubbard studied[5] Freudian psycho-analysis under Commander Thompson. Mission Into Time states that Hubbard received an "extensive education in the area of understanding" from him. What is peculiar is that, according to Jon Atack, Hubbard made no mention of Thompson or Freud in his diaries. He could not have received all that strong of an impression.

According to research by Russell Miller and Jon Atack, Hubbard's extensive travels in Asia are reduced to a few days or weeks. In What is Scientology? (1978), it states that Hubbard traveled to the Far East in 1925. In the latest edition of the book (1991), it now states that he began his travels in 1927. Did the "unofficial" biography lead to this correction?

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In the new edition of What is Scientology?, we no longer see anything of Hubbard's travels to Tibet, of which the old edition reports, "In the isolation of the mountains of Tibet, even local bandits reacted to Ron's interest in them, and shared their understanding of life with him." Today, however, the story is about nomadic bandits outside a lama cloister in China.

According to Russell Miller and Jon Atack, no intellectual questions as to the "why" and "wherefore" of life are asked in Hubbard's early daily diaries. Has something been exaggerated by the authors of What is Scientology?[6] Miller and Atack have meticulously reconstructed the early youth of Hubbard in their books. They refer to the diaries as well as to entries in the log books of various American ships and other sources. If these documents are correct, one comes to the conclusion that Hubbard spend a total of a few weeks, at the most a couple of months, in China.

Hubbard got his first chance in 1927 on his trip to Guam, where his father was stationed as a member of the Navy. The interlude in China could not have lasted long, because the President Madison was not a cruise ship, but a freighter. After Hawaii, it stopped in Yokohama, Shanghai, and Hong Kong. From there it continued to the Philippines and finally to Guam. After a six week stay, Hubbard began the return trip on July 16, 1927 on the USS Nitro[7].

From September, 1927 to May 11, 1928, Hubbard went to Helena High School.[8] At the end of June, he spontaneously decided to visit his parents. The book, Mission Into Time, reports that Hubbard was an enthusiastic world traveler from 1925 to 1929, and that a wealthy grandfather made it possible for him to spend these years travelling throughout Asia.

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We can actually find in Hubbard's diary (according to Miller) the following entry upon Hubbard's arrival in Guam for the second time: "My possessions were: two handkerchiefs, two pairs of underwear, one pair of shoes, a thin overcoat, one toothbrush, two pairs of socks and two pennies. No wardrobe, no money."

On June 30, 1928, he boarded the USS Henderson, and was with his parents in Guam just one month later. In October of that year, his family undertook a vacation cruise to China on board the USS Gold Star. The first stop was Tsingtao, where the ship loaded fuel (coal). According to the log book, the ship anchored the next day by T'ank-ku, from where the passengers were able to take a train to Peking. Apparently nothing was found in Hubbard's diaries about philosophy and religion. All it said about the trip to the lama temple was that it was "frightfully cold and very run-down. [...] The people that were praying there had voices like bullfrogs and beat a drum and played a tin instrument to accompany their song(?)"

On December 18, not six weeks after the ship departed, the Gold Star pulled back into Guam.

So much for Hubbard's travels to China, as reconstructed by Jon Atack and Russell Miller. This trip appears very differently to many Scientologists than it apparently was.[9]

Hubbard's time in the Navy was also glorified. Ron's command of the submarine chaser PC 815 was described in the Scientology publication Ron, Master Mariner, Issue I: Sea Captain, of 1991. Intentionally left out was the end of his short command of that ship. According to documents of the US Navy, Ron's position as "captain" only lasted from April 21, 1943 until July 7, 1943. It ended after an event which occurred on June 28, when Hubbard disregarded orders by opening fire in Mexican waters for target practice while anchored in the vicinity of the central Coronado islands. This was cause for a letter of protest to be sent from Mexico.

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Hubbard's evaluation, a "report on the fitness of officers" by Rear Admiral F. A. Braisted, is devastating. Question 13 of the form asks, "How would this officer be compared to other officers of his rank and equivalent time in service?" Admiral Braisted checked the bottom ranking, "under average." Under the comments column, he added five lines:

This officer lacks the essential qualities of judgment, leadership and cooperation. He acts without regard to possible results. He believes that he made an honest effort to make his ship efficient and ready. He is not presently qualified for command or promotion. I recommend assignment to a large ship, where he can be adequately supervised.

Hubbard got off lightly. On July 15, 1943, the results of his "Board of Investigation" included, "This reprimand is written on the basis of his short time in service as commander and the urgent needs of the military in lieu of more drastic disciplinary measures, which would be the case under more normal circumstances in peacetime."

The evaluation by Rear Admiral Braisted followed an earlier evaluation by the American Naval Attache, L.D. Casey, on February 14, 1942:

2. In that he pretended competence without authority, and tried to carry out assignments for which he was not qualified, he has been the source of many problems.

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This officer does not fulfill the qualifications needed for independent assignment. He is loquacious and tries to impart impressions of his own importance. Besides that he appears to believe that he possesses extraordinary capability in most areas. These characteristics are a symptom of the need for close supervision under peacetime circumstances.

In 1973, Scientology stated that L. Ron Hubbard was delivered to Oak Knoll Naval Hospital and stayed there a year:[10]

[...]during this time he merged his perceptions of eastern philosophy, his understanding of nuclear physics, and his experiences with people. He [Hubbard] said, "I found myself seeking out things from nuclear physics and a knowledge of the physical universe which were completely lacking in Asiatic philosophy."[...]

Due to, for the most part, the extraordinary discoveries of L. Ron Hubbard during his stay at Oak Knoll in 1944, he recovered so completely as to once again be classified as completely fit for duty. [...]

He decided that the results which he had achieved could bring others to greater ability and greater happiness. It was at that time that a few of the fundamental concepts of Dianetics and Scientology were first formulated.

In 1991, in their PR book What is Scientology?, Scientology talked about Hubbard's activities in 1947:

Ron opened an office [...] in Los Angeles, where he tested the application of Dianetics on actors, directors, writers, and others in the Hollywood community [...]. With test cases and research material in hand, Ron traveled to Washington, where he put his sixteen years of continuous research into written form in order to determine the dynamic principle of existence.

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The following letter by L. Ron Hubbard does not at all fit in with the above explanation. He wrote it about three months after his arrival in California, on October 15, 1947, to the office of the Veteran's Administration in Los Angeles. There is no mention of any office established by him in Los Angeles:

                                 Box 297
                                 North Hollywood, Calif.
                                 October 15, 1947

Los Angeles, 25, Calif.


        This is a request for treatment.

        My residence is north of North Hollywood,
but I attend school at Geller Theater Workshop,
Fairfax and Wilshire, Los Angeles.  It would be
appreciated if any out-physician selected would
be located near my school as I have a vacant
hour and a half from 1 to 2:30 four days each
week at school.  I work at night six days per week.

        I was placed on certain medication back
east and have continued it at my own expense.

        After trying and failing for two years
to regain my equilibrium in civil life, I am
utterly unable to approach anything like my
own competence.  My last physician informed me
that it might be very helpful if I were to be
examined and perhaps treated psychiatrically
or even by a psycho-analyst.  Toward the end
of my service I avoided out of pride any mental
examinations, hoping that time would balance
a mind which I had every reason to suppose was
seriously affected.  I cannot account for nor
rise above long periods of moroseness and suicidal
inclinations, and have newly come to realize that
I must first triumph above this before I can hope
to rehabilitate myself at all.

        I cannot leave school or what little work
I am doing for hospitalization due to many
obligations, but I feel I might be treated
outside, possibly with success.  I cannot,
myself, afford such treatment.

        Would you please help me?


                                   L. Ron Hubbard

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Gerald Armstrong, a member of the Sea Organization, Scientology's elite organization, wanted to write Hubbard's biography. This was supposed to take place in cooperation with Omar Garrison, who, at the time, was an author thought of highly by Scientology, even though he, himself, was not a Scientologist. Garrison had already published two books on the subject of Scientology, and had expressed a positive attitude towards it. Gerald Armstrong was appointed as L. Ron Hubbard's archivist. Thousands of pages had to be reviewed. As Armstrong set about arranging them in chronological order, he discovered contradictions between official versions and that which was documented before him. Hubbard's diaries from his youth were of great assistance to him. When he discovered these contradictions, Armstrong apparently fell into conflict with Norman Starkey, who is currently administrative executor, and wrote to Cirrus Slevin, a high ranking co-worker:[11]

What I have been able to find out during my discussion with Norman, and also through my basic work as biographical researcher, is the fact that nothing published about LRH, of whom nothing is known, is a fact [...].

If we present uncertainties, exaggerations and plain lies as facts or as truth, [...] then the man will look like a charlatan when things are uncovered, at least for outsiders. I would like to prevent that, and that is what I have been working for the past one and a half years.

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photo of Hubbard letter of October 15, 1947

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Continuing the claim that [Hubbard] has never erred and never lied is counter-productive. It is an unrealistic position, and too far removed from reality and people for it to be publicly accepted.

Armstrong realized exactly what would happen if Hubbard's real biography would come to light, especially if it were to be published by an author who was not inclined to be friendly with Scientology.

However, his revelation of the facts, his attempt to bring the truth into the light of day, did not fit in with the official intentions, so that Gerald Armstrong was declared to be a "suppressive person" in February, 1982. In August, 1982, Scientology finally sued its former member for, among other things, illicit use of other's property, and misuse of a position of trust. The church wanted to prevent the documents from becoming publicly known or accessible. Scientology lost this suit.[12] The opinion of the court would cause any Scientologists hair to stand on end.

If Scientology were to admit to Hubbard's true biography, what would it hurt? Hubbard's not coming from a wealthy family is not a stigma. Neither is his never having traveled in Asia with unbounded curiosity about Eastern philosophy. What is harming Scientology is that fact that today they are still trying to construct an aura of glory where a basis for it does not exist. Even Albert Einstein had to repeat a school year, and Harry S. Truman, the American President, had two businesses which had to declare bankruptcy before he became president.

If Hubbard's realizations and techniques were really of some use, why would anyone have to make him into a big hero if he were not one to begin with? Or would Hubbard's true biography cause the collapse of the entire structure?

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Philosophy - Religion - Psychotherapy?

What is Scientology now? Philosophy? Religion? Psychotherapy? All, one, or none of the above? In October, 1950, Hubbard wrote:

Dianetics is a science. As such it has no opinion as to religion, because science is based upon the laws of nature, and not on opinion.[13]

In August, 1952, this concept of Scientology, as stated by Hubbard, appeared for the first time:

Scientology is a new word that describes a new science. [...] Scientology means knowing how to know, or the science of knowing.[14]

Six months later, Hubbard described Scientology:

The formulation of Scientology is not based on any other concept or rules outside of Dianetics, which deals with the treatment of the person as an individual as a new kind of psychotherapy with the goal of enabling a person to become better. This is not the goal of Scientology. Scientology is concerned with reaching the highest level of knowledge and existence, which is possible whether or not the person stays a person or becomes something else. Scientology is a popularized word, and means exactly the same as epistemology - whereas this word, and I believe you will agree with me, is not used by the general public.

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[...] We do not impart data or knowledge, we convey a process which puts a person in a position in which he is able to accumulate all the data and knowledge at his convenience. Scientology is the science of knowing how to know. [15]

This presentation of Scientology is miles away from the one which Scientology presents today. Today, Scientology is an organization that clearly tells its members what to think in certain areas. The PR techniques which have already been mentioned are an essential element of this influence. Somewhere a change has taken place, and it remains to be asked, when and why.

Hubbard: I am not a Philosopher

In the same article by Hubbard, there is another, most noteworthy paragraph, that begins as follows:

I am not a philosopher, and will never pretend to be one. The mission of philosophers is to go forth and philosophize. Normally, they will philosophize for their entire lives, and in the books of philosophers, all the absurdities and all the wisdom of people are found.[16]

Hubbard further stated that he did not voluntarily move into the area of Dianetics. It was the stupidity of his fellow human beings that drove him there. Hubbard was apparently so shocked by the "foolish prattle of science and psychotherapy" and the "babble about mysticism and philosophy" that he could do nothing else but bestow real help upon humanity. That is why, according to Hubbard, not only were his findings about hypnosis and mysticism very suitable, but also his determinations about nuclear physics.

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The "pig sty of a civilization", the culture of "outright barbarism" had to be helped! At the time, Hubbard stated, not for the last time, that he had developed his "science" to its successful conclusion. The research was always "concluded", then "continued."

Here I must ask a serious question about the cultural legacy upon which Hubbard's mental science was based. His radical perspective of the world's conditions and about other movements, be they religions, be they psychologies, continued to change well into his later years.

Besides that, Hubbard, himself, stated that Scientology is a mixture of hypnosis, mysticism and knowledge about the material universe.

Others see a certain measure of bitterness in Hubbard's article. We should not forget the historical background of this part of the story. For Americans the Second World War had only been over for six years. The fear could still be seen everywhere, mainly in the eyes of the people who, if they had not lost relatives, experienced tragedy in their circle of friends and acquaintances, when a father or a son no longer came home. This was the background for commentaries such as the above, as it was for Hubbard's urgency to put something in motion so that the situation would not repeat itself.

In June, 1953, Hubbard was still stating the concept of Scientology as follows:

Scientology is the science of knowing. It consists of many parts. Its main division is Scientology itself, as well as para-scientology. Under scientology we categorize those things which we are able to be sure of, and exclusively such things about which we have certainty.

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Science itself is certainty; knowledge is not equivalent to data.

Para-scientology is the big pot which contains all those things which are connected by greater or lesser uncertainty. Here is where the questionable things are, those things about which the normal observer with a little study can not be sure. A few of the things which fall under para-Scientology are: Dianetics, the immortality of people, the existence of God [...]. Such things have a relative truth.

Nevertheless, Dianetics is more of an exact science than many others which have previously carried this label.

In any case the following things are categorized under the heading of para-Scientology: past lives, mysterious influences, astrology, mysticism, religion, psychology, psychiatry, nuclear physics and any other science which is based on theory.[17]

Only a few months later, a radical, in no way natural, change was to take place.

Who really founded the Scientology Church?

On December 1, 1983, on the occasion of a New Year's speech, L. Ron Hubbard stated in the context of a lecture, "I did not found the church, I founded the technology."[18]

Scientology documents the first official Scientology Church as the one started in Los Angeles with a founding date of February 14, 1954.

The Church was born
"After thorough analysis of an agreement,"
stated Scientologists in 1954 in an edition of the Journal of Scientology, one could not directly state: Scientology fills the needs of a church." As a result, and independently from Mr. Hubbard, the first Scientology Church was founded by community members in Los Angeles.[19]

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The first time Hubbard wrote officially on the subject of religion and Scientology was on March 10, 1954:

The big novelty in Scientology is our alliance with various areas of psychotherapy and the application of Scientology in very differing spheres. In California, for example, we are accepted as a religion. One of our colleges has registered as the CHURCH OF SCIENTOLOGY in California, and will serve as the coordination point for many religious communities.[20]

As if it were pulled out of a magician's hat, a Scientology church suddenly appeared, presumably founded by some Scientologists completely independently from L. Ron Hubbard. They were granted the power to ordain ministers by the state of California. This Church of Scientology, in turn, had a contract with a "Mother Church" by the name of CHURCH OF AMERICAN SCIENCE, and paid a church tax of 20 percent.

The matter did not stop there. Besides that, an alliance with the FREUDIAN FOUNDATION OF AMERICA was forged, so that psychologists could be trained in the Hubbard technology. Hubbard's words were mysterious: "through connections made in Europe and other places," it would also be possible to issue certificates of Freudian analysis. This very well could have been legitimate, since Scientology was already solving problems in its preliminary stages which Freudian psychoanalysis never would have been able to solve. It would be a "social contribution" for Scientology now to satisfy unfulfilled hopes which Freudian methodology had sought in vain.

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Therefore, according to Hubbard, people who had reached a certain level in taking his courses were entitled to one or more of the following certificates: DOCTOR OF SCIENTOLOGY, FREUDIAN PSYCHOANALYST, DOCTOR OF THEOLOGY.

Hubbard gave another important reference in the same source of information:

Because of the legal situation in various places, the Scientology Church is the surest tip in such areas. The alliance with the Freudian Foundation is possible.

Hubbard did not reveal who was behind the "Freudian Foundation of America." He did state, however, that they were the only organization in the USA who had obtained the rights from the Freud Institute in Vienna to use the name of Freud for a foundation. And who was pulling the strings behind the Church of American Science to whom this first Scientology Church was paying a hefty tax? I did some research and came up with the following:

On December 18, 1953, about two months before the founding of the Scientology Church in Los Angeles, in Camden, New Jersey, L. Ron Hubbard personally founded the Church of American Science. And what did he found on the same day? - a "Church of Scientology" and a "Church of Spiritual Engineering"!

The founding members of all three "churches" were: L. Ron Hubbard, Sr., L. Ron Hubbard, Jr., (Hubbard's first son, known as "Nibs"); Henrietta Hubbard (Nibs' wife); John Galusha, Barbara Bryan and Verna Greenough.

The people assigned as administrators in all three churches were the same: L. Ron Hubbard, his wife, Mary Sue Hubbard, and John Galusha.

Why had Hubbard not told his followers that he was behind the Church of American Science?

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Why did Hubbard lie in 1983 when he claimed that he had not founded the Scientology Church? Why does Scientology continue this lie even today?[21]

My presumption was that Hubbard withdrew into the protective haven of the concept of religion out of legal and/or similar grounds. This presumption would have more of a basis if a letter that he wrote, according to Russell Miller, on April 10, 1953 to the former Dianeticist, Helen O'Brian, could be authenticated. This letter contained the following:

I am waiting your reaction on the religion angle. As far as I'm concerned, we couldn't get a worse appearance to the public and fewer customers than we already have. A religious foundation would be necessary in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. [...] [22]

Let us go back to the beginning of Scientology. What was going on at that time in the USA? One of the early Dianeticists, Jack Horner, described his outlook on things in an interview with Russell Miller in 1986:

I was in college and had studied the newest discoveries of psychology. In comparison to what he [Hubbard] had discovered and what it [Dianetics] could achieve, they were not worth a thing [...]. I think it could be stated as true that the early fifties was the right moment for Dianetics to get on its feet. The atomic bombs had been used, there was a general feeling of hopelessness, and a fear of nuclear war predominant. People built themselves huts in the forests. This perception was strengthened by McCarthy, and our troops were fighting a war in Korea that most of us did not understand. Along comes Hubbard with the idea that a determined general increase of mental health could present part of the solution to the threat of an atomic war. It is no wonder that people wanted to listen to him.[23]

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Dianetics became a big best seller, was at the top of the best seller list of the Los Angeles Time for months, and Dianetics groups sprang up everywhere.

Very soon thereafter, traditional psychology and medicine arose and tore Hubbard's work to pieces. Why? Hubbard was making the claim that anybody could learn how to cure his psychosomatic illnesses. With that, he was treading on sacred ground without having received the necessary blessings. He had studied neither psychology nor medicine. And the overnight success of Dianetics created a fear in the practitioners of medicine and psychology that they would lose their patients. To which they responded, what is an uninitiated person doing meddling in their area of expertise?

The medical establishment at the time, despite the critical attitude towards Hubbard's perception, did not seem to be completely disinclined by his ideas. The American Psychological Association published, according to Jon Atack in his book, A Piece of Blue Sky, the following statement in the New York Times on September 2, 1950:

While the Association will not pass judgment as to the possible validity of the assertions of the author of Dianetics, it will point out the fact that these assertions are not supported by the type of empirical evidence that would be necessary for the assertion of general scientific evidence. In the public interest, the Association recommends to its members that, lacking such proof, the application of the Dianetic techniques should be limited to scientific research for the purpose of testing the validity of the claims.

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If Hubbard had declared himself ready to conduct a series of tests according to normal scientific tradition, then perhaps Dianetics, if this thesis had proved to be correct, could have turned out completely differently. We should not forget that the Dianetic principle of a person remembering his "past lives" is not something easily assimilated into classic western psychology, nor is Hubbard's conviction that he was the only one who could make an essential contribution to the subject.

I do not want to do Hubbard an injustice by putting on record that he a) apparently agitated something, b) came upon not inconsiderable and perhaps even organized resistance, c) apparently convinced many people who were enthused with his actions. It is completely feasible that those improvements brought about by Hubbard's methods in certain areas could have been individually, realistically, and objectively verified.

Scientology and Sigmund Freud

Hubbard also had his differences with Sigmund Freud. In the key word index of one of the books with his collected articles, we find references to "Freud" in two places in text. A third has been forgotten! This one mainly sings the praises of Sigmund Freud. In it, Hubbard is brimming over with thankfulness to Freud, who (in contrast to Hubbard), without nuclear physics or extended ethnological travels of study, had managed to discover the essence of humankind's physical suffering. "No praise for such a man could be high enough, and the thanks that I owe to him as the source of my inspiration and work is infinitely great, and without restrictions of any kind,"[24] wrote Hubbard, not forgetting to add that five hours of Scientology therapy could deliver a psychoanalysis that even Freud could not have outdone.

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How had Scientology neglected to mention this reference in the index of key words when it had mentioned two others in which Hubbard was partially praising, but expressed himself clearly more critically?

In one of these references Hubbard reported that he was working on a book of Freudian self-analysis. Hubbard's intention was that his reference to Freud and psychology should lead not only the psychologists and psychiatrists, but also the laymen interested in this area, step by step to the realization that Scientology had the final solution for all of their cases and problems. Besides, according to Hubbard, one aimed for "further agreement with all areas of psychotherapy, and that would give us a legitimate foundation."

Apart from the clear-cut self promotion, the aspect of legitimacy is mentioned. It could very well be that despite all the theoretical superstructure which was added on later, Hubbard finally declared Scientology to be a religion and a church because of certain advantages associated with that status. Perhaps this was a reaction to the failed attempt at founding a new "science" which had not been found acceptable to the psychologists of the time.

Hubbard - Church - Religion

The status of religion was finally attained on August 7, 1954. At that time, Hubbard produced the historic background to the religion of Scientology - in basic contrast to his earlier assertions.

He reported in his article Why Doctor of Theology? that there had been an uproar amongst Scientologists about Scientology's sudden link to the Church of American Science, or that a Church of Scientology even existed at all.

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Such an uproar would have been very understandable. Many lay people had felt that they had suddenly been enabled to operate in a therapeutic area. Being turned from therapists into priests practically overnight was difficult for anyone to swallow, even in today's fast-paced environment. Hubbard cleverly worded the following:

For a few this may seem to be sheer opportunism, for a few it may appear Scientology is only making itself unassailable in the eyes of the law, and for still others it may appear any association with religion would be a reduction of the ethics and the goals of Scientology itself. However, the great majority of interested people have accepted, but not all have fully understood it.[25]

Even in this article Hubbard does not waste words about his own founding of the Church of American Science. He projects the impression to his readers that this church was something completely independent of him.

Hubbard discovers a new Eastern religion

In the same context, Hubbard refers to the Vedic hymns, the first scriptures of ancient Indian religion. In short order he had discovered a religion by the name of "Dharma." A certain Gautama Sakyamuni was said to have been an adherent of the Dharma religion. This was said to have been taught by a people who one described as Buddha. The Western world, however, according to Hubbard, knew the Dharma religion as Buddhism and "believed, at times, it was a superstition or an idolatrous practice, or thought it was founded by a man with the name of Buddha. None of that is true."[26]

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Hubbard's explanations are false. The concept of Dharma, a word from the Sanskrit, actually describes a key concept that, in actuality, has various meanings:

In Hinduism: the religious and moral laws which determine the behavior of a person and make up one of the four goals of life.

In Buddhism: the teaching, the universal truth which is the same for all people at any time, and which is pronounced by Buddha. The Dharma, the Buddha and the Sangha (the community of the faithful, the monks) form the "three jewels", the main expression or the main pillars of Buddhism.

On August 16, 1996 Hubbard went a step further in his "religiously supportive" expression, and finally declared that Dharma was supposed to have been the name of a wise monk:

And there was the fellow by the name of Dharma. He was a legendary monk [...] Curiously, his name, today, means "fate." In the more esoteric philosophies of the East, they talk about somebody's Dharma. And that has been perverted into Karma and so forth. But he is so legendary that his name means something quite different today.[27]

Two days later, on August 18, Hubbard "corrected" himself:

I would like to make a small correction. If you, as have I, gone away after the last lecture and looked up Dharma to find out what of it has been preserved, then save yourself the trouble. Dharma means everything possible from "divine law" to "the entire caste system of India" to "fate" [...] and so forth. And in no mass produced reference work which I have yet consulted and which is available to me today have I found a correct definition.[28]

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One could accuse Hubbard of frivolity and superficiality in his selection and meaning of sources (not named by him). However, his attitude would be problematic because the normal Scientologist has the tendency to take everything that Hubbard said or wrote at face value. This leads to a false datum. On top of that, Hubbard's book, Hymn of Asia, suggests that Hubbard himself is the Western successor to Buddha. With this kind of glorification, only a person who is able to maintain his distance would be able to institute a thought process.

The Founding of a Religion

As an introduction to his argument that Scientology is supposed to be a religion, Hubbard talked about the Buddhist scriptures:

Here we find an amazing work of scientific- philosophical- religious truth. These texts, which were written about 600 years before Christ, encompass a religion of passion and of greatness.[29]

He defined Buddhism entirely according to his own needs. Everything is contained in it: science, philosophy and religion. So Hubbard continues to argue on which account Scientology is supposed to be a religion, and educated practitioners of Scientology may, because of that, carry the title of "doctor of theology."

The only thing that we are interested in here is the fact that religion, in principle, is a philosophical teaching. [...] Completely supported by the forerunners throughout the ages, a Scientologist has a greater right to call himself a priest, a clergyman, a missionary, a doctor of theology, a faith healer or a preacher than any other person who bears the insignia of religion in the Western world. And consider that there are precedents which rule the opinions of the masses and of nations.[30]

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Insofar as he explains that religion is nothing else than a philosophical teaching, Hubbard gently opens the door to the "understanding" that Scientology could be nothing other than a religion. The fact that this kind of claim, and it is nothing more than that, declares all of philosophy to be a religion, is not a factor for him. Plato, Kant, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, they are all religious supporters, according to Hubbard! Then Hubbard gives a couple of solid reasons why Scientology is connected with religion, or why the word "religion" should be used in connection with it:

There are many, many reasons. Among others, society grants men of the church access to places which are barred to others. Prisons, hospitals and [psychiatric] institutions and the like can do nothing else but welcome men of the cloth. We are talking about more than propriety or protection by the law. We are talking about honest urgency.[31]

Of course, Hubbard found himself in an honest dilemma. Just a few months before this, he had been writing about scientific realizations. According to his own information he was not a philosopher; he performed psycho- therapy; communications courses were sold, etc. How could it be explained that Scientology was a religion and nothing but a religion? One example of this:

If we are able to perform psycho-therapy, then this does not mean that we are psycho-therapists. If we are able to bring about better communication in business, then this does not mean that we are business specialists. Perhaps we could consider ourselves to be ambassadors to barbarism, who, in possession of weapons which surpass the ability of their rulers, have fallen into lawlessness.

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In another time and in another place, men (the Buddhas), who were responsible for that which the Western culture calls religion, called themselves priests. I do not see any inconsistency if those who are well educated and drilled in Scientology use the title of Doctor of Theology as a pass into these areas when it is necessary. Only a barbarian clergyman is a "man of God." In all other enlightened religions such men are called "men of wisdom."[32]

This is the explanation of how and why a "science", in 1954, suddenly turned into a "religion."

All these changes and explanations seem a little vague to me. In one case the Scientologist should receive a certificate as a clergyman, but if it suits him better in another case, then it should be a certificate as a Freudian analyst, or a Doctor of Theology. Why not all three? One time Hubbard is very close to Freud, another time he is very far removed. His repeated mistaken assumptions of Eastern thought and religious models surprised me. This confirmed my suspicion that Scientology was designated as a "religion" out of sheer opportunism.

Scientology: the religion of religions

Scientology is the religion which should be the religion of all religions[33] :

Scientology is the science of knowing how one knows answers. It is an organized system with axioms and processes which solve the problems of existence.

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A Scientologist is a specialist in spiritual and human affairs.

Scientology is organized from the viewpoint of the spirit outward, and contains a precise and applicable definition of the spirit as well as charts and studies, and it is capable of changing the behavior of the spirit.

This science is established in the tradition of ten thousand years of religious philosophy, and regards itself to be the lead point of the search which had begun with the Veda, Tao, Buddhism, Christianity and other religions. Scientology is a Gnostic belief, in that it knows that it knows. This is the characteristic which separates it from most of its predecessors. Scientology can demonstrate that it is able to attain goals set by Christ: wisdom, good health, and immortality.

That is one of the concrete text examples which leads Scientologists to believe that they possess the one and final truth. The text itself is probably not familiar to most Scientologists, nevertheless, the core belief is being spread in manifold ways and means. By using this view, any tolerance which Scientology presents to non-believers is reduced down to a sympathetic and kind smile - non-believers simply do not know any better. This attitude has also been transplanted into the most recent Scientology Handbook. It contains a photograph in which representatives of the major world religions are pictured on a mountain. Way above them on the mountain, so that the others must look up to him, stands the wise Scientologist.

In 1955, Hubbard retracted his previous statements that Dianetics or Scientology had anything to do with science:

The biggest mistake which I have made, and I have made mistakes, believe you me, but the biggest mistake which I have made, was on the day I said, "Well good, friends, we will call that a science.

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Well good, I will agree that the western hemisphere is not ready to accept something spiritual or religious. Well good, we will call it a science. And we will call this science 'Dianetics,' which means "through the mind.'"

This statement has no real basis in fact, because the United States, of all countries, is known for its care of religion and religious freedom. Churches and religion do not play an insignificant role in social life.

The younger Scientologists often do not know that Hubbard had no relationship with a church. Step by step each context in which Hubbard makes a reference to public relations and legal problems is inconspicuously disappearing. L. Ron Hubbard's true relationship to priests was clear in an article from June 5, 1984:

I want to tell you a secret. There was a group of beings (by that is meant "psychiatrists" and "priests" - in reality, the same), that existed long, long ago.[34]

And this clique, reports Hubbard in Scientology's own jargon, is supposed to have been responsible for intimidating people so that they retreated from honest life and started committing bad deeds.

Sometime, somewhere, apparently someone accused Scientology of demonizing priests, even though Scientology itself was designated as a church, and supposed had "priests." In any case, this sentence, on January 11, 1990, four years after Hubbard's death, was cosmetically revised, apparently to satisfy Scientology strategy and their classic enemy image, as well as to not lead themselves (with their own priests) into absurdity:

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I will tell you a secret. There were psychiatrists a long, long time ago.[35]

That was easy. That resembles the alibi work of a PR strategy, in particular because the Scientologists have been busy for several years making revisions to Hubbard's texts without duly noting them as such. Comparisons are possible only if you have older versions of the same texts.

A Theologian on Scientology

Dr. Georg Schmid, Zurich theologian and religion professor, writes an answer to Hubbard's article, Why Doctor of Theology, as well as to other Hubbard texts:

The religious perceptions of L. Ron Hubbard are restricted, according to my observations, to a learned dictionary knowledge, that - as happens with partial knowledge in other places - is applied unceremoniously wherever it serves his own argument and confirms his own perspective.

Hubbard uses a partial knowledge of the history of Buddhism to uncover the claim of Scientology to be a church. Scientology is a church so that it can gain access, with this claim, to hospitals and public establishments. Scientology sees itself as a religious philosophy. In the case of early Buddhism, religion is said to be not a belief system, but a religious philosophy. Buddhism, which spread westward, is said to put all Western religions, Christianity included, to ruin. Also Christianity is said, at its core, to be a religious philosophy, and Scientology, as a religious philosophy without Buddhist tendencies of fatalism and lethargy, is, to say, a religion par excellence. Scientology feels that it has what all earlier religions have been striving for.

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This thought process only serves to illustrate the unique position of Scientology in the history of the human spirit. Hubbard did not have a genuine understanding of Buddhism, nor of Christianity, nor of other religions. The necessary requisites were missing for a genuine understanding. Hubbard only cared about Scientology, about the fame of his own work.

These highly incidental dealings with statements out of the history of religion coincide with Hubbard embracing and selling mistaken ideas. Hubbard is in error when he perceives Dharma as a religion which existed before Buddhism. There is not that direct of a connection between the Buddhist Dharma and Upanistic Mysticism. He errs when he talked about the Buddhist canonical scriptures being written down in 600 B.C. The texts are probably 500 years younger than that. He errs when he presumes that Buddhist teachings - as they spread westward - became known as Christianity. The influence of Eastern mysticism upon Jesus and the early Christian community can only be speculated upon. There are no grounds for it

L. Ron Hubbard presents religiously historical speculations as if they were facts. That bothers neither him nor any Scientologist. The expert understanding of Buddhism and of Christianity is not their goal. Scientology is only concerned with Scientology. Other episodes of religious history are changed and re-written so as to lend the greatest praise to Scientology.

What is Scientology now?

Perhaps Scientology is still too young, and a scientific assessment and categorization is not yet possible.

page 86

Perhaps a hundred years will have to pass us by, so that we can take a historical perspective towards the classification.

Perhaps it would be appropriate if psychology were also designated as a religion. The name would have to be changed, but psychology was originally part of philosophy, which, in turn, goes back to the ancient Greeks, and from that point there are connections to the Veda..., at which point we would have the same source as Scientology does.

Maybe any author of an esoteric book could be a supporter of religion. Whoever goes into an esoteric bookstore will see how many there are.

The problem appears to me to be that not only does Scientology not fit into the traditional concept of religion, but neither is it appropriate to call it psychology or philosophy. I would like to leave the decision up to others. I, personally, have never understood Scientology to be a "church" in the real sense of the word, and I also have a hard time thinking of it as religion. To me, it appears to be a protective cloak. Besides that, if L. Ron Hubbard saw Scientology as a kind of "progression" of Buddhism, then the fundamental concepts of Buddhism should have become clearer. Because L. Ron Hubbard brought about all the strange changes described in these chapters, and because he did not pursue religious history with any precision, I am convinced that Scientology became a "religion" out of sheer opportunism. It appears to me to be a "safe haven" from which to operate.

Since I am now a friend of freedom, I would not wish that the practices of Scientology, so far as its counseling and courses are concerned, be restricted - otherwise an immensely large selection of courses on meditation, inspiration, religion. philosophy, astrology, esoterica, etc. would also have to be banned.

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Scientology's range of conditions, which include totalitarian and fundamentalist characteristics, would have to undergo a significant transformation. This appears to be problematic, because under those conditions certain of Hubbard's works would have to be deleted or changed, which would be an attack on the "pureness of the teachings." Scientology has worked its way into a blind alley.

Also the fact that each individual must raise an incredible amount of finance in direct contradiction to the Scientology assertion that it is for "all people" is something to think over. For Scientology, this amounts to the "religious" principle of give and take. He, who gives, receives. He, who gives more, receives more. He, who gives less, receives less. Now add the question of why a community which says it is based upon Buddhism relies so much upon material goods. Payment of 100,000 franks ($70,000) and more are the norm, not the exception, for the individual.

It is supposed to be a completely different matter that the principle of give and take is also the principle used by every proper merchant. In any case, my customer's writing of checks to me has never been known as a "religious dealing." Now, however, every decent merchant can enjoy the knowledge that, according to Scientology philosophy, his day to day trade constitutes a religious activity. The merchant as a priest? Or turned around, the priest as a merchant? Vendor of religious wares and services? Tax free, of course!

Perhaps one should simply regard Scientology as one of the many commercial enterprises in the life assistance market. That is how its activity presents itself. The extent of their true "social" activities may dwindle in relationship to gross sales. On top of that, the members are asked to make abundant special donations and volunteer staff work. This would make it particularly apparent, in the eyes of the public, where the "religious" character lies.

page 88


These presents are to certify that We, L. Ron Hubbard, Sr. of the Borough of Medford Lakes, County of Burlington and State of New Jersey, L. Ron Hubbard, Jr., and Henrietta Hubbard, of the City and County of Camden and the State of New Jersey; John Galusha, R.R.#1 Box 394, of the City and County of Pueblo and State of Colorado; Verna Greenough of Bellmawr Park, in the County of Garden and State of New Jersey and Barbara Bryan, of the City and County of Philadelphia and State of Pennsylvania, do hereby associate ourselves into a corporation under and by virtue of an Act of the Legislature of the State of New Jersey entitled "The Corporation and Association Not For Profit Act." (Title 15 of the Revised Statutes of 1937, N.J.S.A.) and the various amendments thereto and supplements thereof for the lawful purpose other than pecuniary profit as hereinafter stated and to that end we do by this instrument certify that:

FIRST: The name by which the corporation shall be known in law is "The Church of American Science."

SECOND: The purpose for which this corporation is formed is to act as the Mother Church for the propagation of a religious faith known as "Scientology". Believing that Man's best Evidence of God is the God he finds within himself, and trusting with Enduring Faith that the Author of this Universe intended Life to thrive within it, the Church of American Science is founded to espouse such evidence of the Supreme Being and Spirit as may be knowable to Man and by their use of the Church of American Science hopes to bring a greater tranquility to the State and better order and survival to Man upon this planet.

The Church of American Science exists upon this Creed:

1. That God works within Man his wonders to perform.

2. That Man is his own soul, basically free and immortal, but deluded by the flesh.

3. That Man has a God-given right to his own life.

4. That Man has a God-given right to his own reason.

5. That Man has a God-given right to free and open communication.

6. That the human spirit is the only truly effective therapeutic agent available to Man.

7. That a civilization can endure only so long as both spiritual and material needs find place within its structure and that a civilization is lost when God and the Spirit are forgotten by its leaders and its people.

8. That Man and the Nations of Man carry with them their own Salvation and that teachings exist sufficient to effect it.

The Church of American Science exists to assist the strong and the weak, to suppress the wrong-door [sic] and to champion the right and Godly. Its mission is to carry to Man revelations and teaching and practices of the present and the ages past and to assist him, his family and communities to live in greater peace and harmony.

The Holy Book of this church consists of a collection of the works of and about the Great teachers, including the work, St. Luke.

The saints of this Church are the great messiahs and religious philosophers.

The specific teachings of this church concern its Holy Book and those contributions on the Mind and Spirit made in more recent times as a result of scientific investigation concerning the human spirit and the physical universe.

The Church of American Science desires to be chartered:

1. To disseminate its creed and pursue its goals.

2. To Charter Churches and Congregation.

3. To found and conduct spiritual guidance centers.

4. To engage in social work and to engage in charitable undertakings.

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5. To accept fees and donations.

6. To own, rent real and personal property.

7. To found orders and societies within itself as needful.

8. To practice the teachings and beliefs and to propagate in accordance with the tenets healing of the sick and suffering by prayer or other spiritual means without the use of drugs or material remedy.

THIRD: The said corporation shall be located at 527 Cooper street, in the City and County of Camden and State of New Jersey and it shall there have its registered office. The agent in charge thereof shall be L. Ron Hubbard, Sr. The corporation shall not only conduct its activities at the address given but shall conduct them likewise throughout the State of New Jersey and outside of the state.

FOURTH: The number of trustees selected for the first year of the existence of the said corporation shall be three and the name and post office addresses shall be as follows:

     Names                      Post Office Addresses

L. Ron Hubbard, Sr.             Medford Lakes, New Jersey
Mary Sue Hubbard                Medford Lakes, New Jersey
John Galusha                    R. R. #1, Box 394, Pueblo, Colorado

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, we have hereunto set out hands and seals this 18th
day of December 1953.

Signed, sealed and delivered    L. Ron Hubbard, Sr.     (Seal)
    in the presence of          L. Ron Hubbard, Jr.     (Seal)
Florence M. Davis               Henrietta Hubbard       (Seal)
                                John Galusha            (Seal)
                                Barbara Bryan           (Seal)
                                Verna Greenough         (Seal)

                   S ss.

BE IT REMEMBERED, that on this 18th day of December, in the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and fifty-three before me, the undersigned authority personally appeared, L. Ron Hubbard, Sr., L. Ron Hubbard, Jr., Henrietta Hubbard, John Galusha, Verna Greenough and Barbara Bryan, who I am satisfied are the persons who executed the foregoing Certificate of Incorporation and acknowledge that they signed, sealed and delivered the same as their act and deed. All of which is hereby certified.

                                        Florence M. Davis
                                    Notary Public of New Jersey
                                My Commission Expires April 30, 1956

Received and Recorded                   [signature]

December 21, 1953                          Clerk

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These presents are to certify that we, L. Ron Hubbard, Sr., of the Borough of Medford Lakes, County of Burlington and State of New Jersey, L. Ron Hubbard, Jr., and Henrietta Hubbard, of the City and County of Camden and State of New Jersey; John Galusha, R. R. #1, Box 394, of the City and County Pueblo and State of Colorado; Verna Greenough of Bellmawr Park, in the County of Camden and State of New Jersey; and Barbara Bryan, of the City and County of Philadelphia and State of Pennsylvania, do hereby associate ourselves into a corporation under and by virtue of the Provisions of an Act of the Legislature of the State of New Jersey entitled "The Corporation and Association Not for Profit Act." (Title 15 of the Revised Statutes of 1937, N.J.S.A.) and the various amendments thereto and supplements thereof for the lawful purpose other than pecuniary profit as hereinafter stated and to that end we do by this instrument certify that:

FIRST: The name by which the corporation shall be known in law is, "The Church of Scientology".

SECOND: The purposes for which this corporation is formed are as follows:

1. To train and indoctrinate ministers and brothers in the principles and teachings of the Church of American Science.

2. To prepare them and ordain them to carry forward the work of the Church of American Science, and to conduct churches and minister to and conduct congregations.

3. To resolve the travail and difficulties of members of congregations, as these may appertain to the spirit.

4. To instruct in spiritual healing acts and other matters within the Creed of the Church of American Science.

5. To conduct seminaries and instruction groups.

6. To create congregations and have other powers similar to those of the Church of American Science.

This corporation shall be under the direction and subordinate to the Church of American Science.

THIRD: The said corporation shall be located at 527 Cooper St., in the City and County of Camden and State of New Jersey, where its registered office shall be located. The agent for the same and upon whom process can be served is L. Ron Hubbard, Sr.

FOURTH: The activities of the corporation shall be conducted both within and without the State of New Jersey, not being limited to the aforesaid place.

FIFTH: The number of trustees selected for the first year of the existence of said corporation shall be three, and the names and post office addresses of said trustees are as follows:

        Name                    Post Office Address

L. Ron Hubbard, Sr.             Medford Lakes, New Jersey
Mary Sue Hubbard                Medford Lakes, New Jersey
John Galusha                    R. R. #1, Box 394, Pueblo, Colorado

        IN WITNESS WHEREOF, we have hereunto set our hands and seals this
19th day of December, 1953.

Signed, sealed and delivered            L. Ron Hubbard, Sr.     (SEAL)
                                        L. Ron Hubbard, Jr.,    (SEAL)
      in the presence of                Henrietta Hubbard       (SEAL)
                                        John Galusha            (SEAL)
   Florence Davis                       Barbara Bryan           (SEAL)
                                        Verna Greenough         (SEAL)

page 91

                   S ss.

BE IT REMEMBERED, that on this 18th day of November, in the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and fifty-three, before me, the undersigned authority, personally appeared, L. Ron Hubbard, Sr., L. Ron Hubbard, Jr., Henrieta Hubbard, John Galusha, Verna Greenough and Barbara Bryan, who I am satisfied are the persons who executed the foregoing Certificate of Incorporation and acknowledge that they signed, sealed and delivered the same as their act and deed. All of which is hereby certified.

                                        Florence M. Davis        (SEAL)
                                    Notary Public of New Jersey
                                My Commission Expires April 30, 1958

Received and Recorded                    [signature]

December 21, 1953                           Clerk


These presents are to certify that We, L. Ron Hubbard, Sr., of the Borough of Medford Lakes, County of Burlington and State of New Jersey, L. Ron Hubbard, Jr., and Henrietta Hubbard of the City and County of Camden and State of New Jersey; John Galusha, R. R. #1, Box 394, of the City and County of Pueblo and State of Colorado, Verna Greenough of Bellmawr Park, in the County of Camden and State of New Jersey; and Barbara Bryan, of the City and County of Philadelphia and State of Pennsylvania, do hereby associate ourselves into a corporation under and by virtue of the Provisions of an Act of the Legislature of the State of New Jersey entitled "The Corporation and Association Not for Profit Act". (Title 15 of the Revised Statutes of 1937, N.J.S.A.)" and the various amendments thereto and supplements thereof for the lawful purpose other than pecuniary profit as hereinafter stated and to that end we do by this instrument certify that:

page 92

FIRST: The name by which the corporation shall be known in law is, "THE CHURCH OF SPIRITUAL ENGINEERING".

SECOND: The purposes for which this corporation is formed are as follows:

1. The primary mission of this organization is to conduct research, investigation and inquiry into the nature and problems of the spirit and the physical universe.

2. It proposes to supply its findings generally or supply them specifically to the Church of American Science and the Church of Scientology.

3. Its research and investigation into the aforesaid matters shall be financed by means of donations and endowments which it proposes to solicit for its support and the maintenance of its work.

The Creed of this Church is the same as that of the Church of American Science, to which it is subordinate.

THIRD: The said corporation shall be located at 527 Cooper Street, in the City and County of Camden and State of New Jersey, where its registered office shall be located. The agent for the same and upon whom process can be served is L. Ron Hubbard, Sr.

FOURTH: The activities of the corporation shall be conducted both within and without the State of New Jersey, not being limited to the aforesaid place.

FIFTH: The number of trustees selected for the first year of the existence of said corporation shall be three, and the names and post office addresses of said trustees are as follows:

                NAMES                   POST OFFICE ADDRESSES

        L. Ron Hubbard, Sr.             Medford Lakes, New Jersey
        Mary Sue Hubbard                Medford Lakes, New Jersey
        John Galusha                    R.R. #1, Box 394,Pueblo, Colorado

        IN WITNESS WHEREOF, we have hereunto set our hands and seals this
18th day of December, 1953.

Signed, sealed and delivered:           L. Ron Hubbard, Sr.     (SEAL)
                                        L. Ron Hubbard, Jr.     (SEAL)
     in the presence of                 Henrietta Hubbard       (SEAL)
                                        John Galusha            (SEAL)
    Florence M. Davis                   Barbara Bryan           (SEAL)
                                        Verna Greenough         (SEAL)

                   S ss

BE IT REMEMBERED, that on this 18 day of December, in the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and fifty-three, before me, the undersigned authority, personally appeared L. Ron Hubbard, Sr., L. Ron Hubbard, Jr., Henrietta Hubbard, John Galusha, Verna Greenough and Barbara Bryan, who I am satisfied are the persons who executed the foregoing Certificate of Incorporation and acknowledged that they signed, sealed and delivered the same as their act and deed, all of which is hereby certified.

                                        Florence M. Davis
                                    Notary Public of New Jersey (seal)
                                My Commission Expires April 30, 1956.

Received and Recorded                        [signature]

January 15th, 1954                              Clerk



The Genesis of the Scientology Church

  1. L. Ron Hubbard (HCO PL July 9, 1980,
    Ethics, Justice and the Dynamics [Return]
  2. The true genesis of the Scientology Church is the subject of this chapter. This representation does not follow the favorite presentations of Scientology press releases, it is researched much more precisely.
    In case you are a Scientologist and would like to take a look at the documents which I have used, please ask your local Office for Special Affairs for these documents. You will be refused, or it will be asserted that they are counterfeit, so please consult the author directly. [Return]
  3. Jon Atack, A Piece of Blue Sky, Card Publishing, New York. [Return]
  4. Russell Miller, Bare-Faced Messiah, Sphere Books, London. [Return]
  5. RedVol, II, 121. [Return]
  6. I can write poetry, too! I spent three years of my early childhood in Asia, so my biography would have to include: professional obligations of his famous father led the small Tom to Southeast Asia. There, the curious boy, at the age of two, familiarized himself with various cultures: Chinese, Malay, but also Australian and English. He eagerly absorbed everything he could at his young age, and soon spoke four languages: German, English, Cantonese and Malay. He was deeply impressed by the religious rituals which he, even though he was very young, had already learned were something very special. His fascination with religion rose to such an extent, that at the age of nine, he decided to become a Catholic priest, while others of his age dreamt of being firemen or train engineers... [Return]
  7. USS = United States Ship. [Return]
  8. According to the official Scientology biography, Hubbard, at sixteen years old, had already studied Freudian psychoanalysis, read most of the classics, and was searching for "the knowledge and the understanding that people could use to get their own problems under control (WIS, 1978, xxxix). - There is no evidence of this in his diaries. [Return]
  9. In the 1970's, most Scientologists were under the impression that Hubbard had spent several years in China and Tibet. Today, this impression is still given.
    In the new What is Scientology? we read, "In 1927, at the age of 16, Ron undertook the first of many ocean voyages across the Pacific to Asia." "Among other wonders he had been confronted with, reported Ron, were monks who had meditated for weeks without interruption." The impression is intentionally made that Hubbard had been with monks in China for a long time (at least several weeks), which cannot be proved by the reconstruction of the course of his life.
    In the book, Mission Into Time, it was claimed of L. Ron Hubbard, "He was in north China and in India while he studied the holy men when he discovered a strong interest in the the of the spiritual future of mankind." (MIT, 6) [Return]
  10. See Mission Into Time. [Return]
  11. Letter of November 25, 1981. [Return]
  12. During the judicial proceedings, Orwell's 1984 also came up, reminiscent of the instruction Nr. 121669 of December 16, 1969, from the Guardian's Office, signed by Mary Sue Hubbard, Hubbard's third wife. This instruction states that, for internal security purposes, the confidential auditing documents, the Scientology counseling sessions should be culled so that "double agents or disgruntled staff members, Scientologists, or relatives of Scientologists are detected and expunged using any means of potential harm or established harm or eventual harm for Scientology or Scientologists. [...] Extensive use of all the documents of an organization [...] this includes persona records, ethics folders, [...] central files, training folders, auditing folders. [...] to gather complete data on each detected person for use in any possible attack, or to use it to prevent an attack." From this directive, it may be clearly deduced that disagreeable people are to cleverly coerced.
    Scientology will state that this directive has been cancelled long ago. When I think back to how Scientology dealt with my wife and me when we dared to employ criticism, I have serious doubts as to whether these tactics of coercion are not still being applied.
    Several previously high-ranking staff members have ascertained that these partly radical methods are still being used after the alleged internal Scientology reform of the 1980's.
    The current director of the international Office for Special Affairs is Kurt Weiland; at the time of the proceedings against Gerald Armstrong, he was among the leading powers of the Guardian's Office in Germany. [Return]
  13. The Dianetic Auditor, Bulletin, October 1950, Volume I, No. 4. [Return]
  14. Scientology, Issue 1-G, August 1952. [Return]
  15. Associate Newsletter, April 28, 1953. [Return]
  16. ibid. [Return]
  17. Scientology, Issue 16-G, June 1953. [Return]
  18. For Scientologists that would like to look it up: Ron's Journal 38, during the first several minutes of the presentation. [Return]
  19. What is Scientology, 1992 edition, pages 500/501. [Return]
  20. Open letter from Hubbard of March 10, 1954. [Return]
  21. Heber C. Jentzsch, the President of Church of Scientology International, wrote in a letter to the editor in the Washington Post of September 3, 1994, "[...] 1954, as the Scientology Church was founded (founded by persons other than Hubbard) [...]". [Return]
  22. Russel Miller, already cited, page 227. [Return]
  23. ibid., page 207. [Return]
  24. Scientology, Issue 16-G, June 1953. [Return]
  25. Professional Auditor's Bulletin Nr. 32 of August 7, 1954. [Return]
  26. Scientology, Issue 16-G, June 1953. [Return]
  27. Hubbard lecture of August 16, 1966, Releases and Clears. [Return]
  28. Hubbard lecture of August 18, 1966, Study and Intention. [Return]
  29. Professional Auditor's Bulletin Nr. 32 of August 7, 1954. [Return]
  30. ibid. [Return]
  31. ibid. [Return]
  32. ibid. [Return]
  33. Hubbard article of June 5, 1984, False Purpose Rundown. [Return]
  34. Hubbard article of June 5, 1984, False Purpose Rundown, revised on January 11, 1990. [Return]
  35. Hubbard, The Scientologist, A Manual on the Dissemination of Material, circa mid March, 1955. [Return]