The "Scientology Organization" originated with the US American Lafayette Ronald HUBBARD (1911-1986), an effervescent personality who spun a network of legends around his adherents. Even in his youth he is said to have explored and gained experience on long journeys. He made his public appearance in the 1940s as a moderately successful science fiction author. At the end of his service with the US Navy he requested psychotherapeutic treatment, which is possibly where he became acquainted with Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis and his therapy processes. Out of fragments of those teachings and other psychological concepts he developed a method to manipulate the human psyche. In 1950 his book "Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health" was published. In it he claimed that, with his methods, he could free the world from all evil, like war, crime, sickness and poverty. In the following years, HUBBARD supplemented his teachings with concepts of reincarnation, ideas from science fiction, conspiracy theories and teachings of social salvation. In 1954, he founded the first "Church of Scientology" in Los Angeles, which would bring him prestige and tax advantages. In subsequent years HUBBARD envisioned himself and his organization being increasingly surrounded by enemies.
In a decision that went into legal effect in 1978, HUBBARD was convicted of fraud in France. After his death in January 1986, Scientologists continued to come into conflict with the laws of democratic societies because of unethical operating methods and criminal activities, as court cases is various states show. After David MISCAVIGE replaced HUBBARD as organization boss in the beginning of the 1980s, the SO developed into a strictly managed network of "churches," business enterprises and other organizations.
The writings on methods of operation, management and social techniques according to HUBBARD, as well has his Dianetics and Scientology teachings, which Scientologists refer to as "technology" or "tech," are composed of more than 20,000 pages. The core of his teachings is presented in standard works, such as "Dianetics" or "Introduction to the Ethics of Scientology." In the 13 volumes of the so-called "Technical Bulletins," besides political essays, are the fundamental "technical" instructions ("HCO Bulletins" ) for auditors . The "Organization Executive Course") and the "Management Seminars" consist of several thousand pages of "HCO Policy Letters" which contain the general method of operation for management and administration ("Admin Tech") for Scientologists. The numerous course consist mainly of HUBBARD's policy letters; tape recorded lectures and various training films round out the "education" of the Scientologists.
At the core of HUBBARD's "Admin tech" is a totalitarian system of control. Intensive surveillance and discipline are obtained from personal "statistics" to assign "ethics conditions" to individuals. These "ethical" conditions of existence range from "power" and "affluence" down to "enemy" or "treason."  While staff with high statistics ("upstats"), in the Scientology method of thinking, are right no matter what the rules are, those with low statistics ("downstats") are subject to especially rigid procedures. 
The SO propagates portended ability for optimum control of political organizations and states with HUBBARD' administrative techniques, too. At the same time, HUBBARD's concepts spurn, in part subliminally, the principal of democracy and reveals socially Darwinistic ideology.
On the outside, the SO tries to give the impression that some of HUBBARD's writings are "old" and therefore no longer of significance. Actually, HUBBARD's instructions are law for dedicated Scientologists; those who disregard them face punishment. Policy letters and bulletins are <valid from the time they are published, unless they are explicitly cancelled>.  Policy letters are to be <applied without exception at a broad level for all organizations and Scientologists. (...) HCO policy letters do not expire, unless they are superceded or modified by later HCO policy letters. No representative and no Scientology staff may disregard policy, even if he is requesting a revision>.  Scientology even claims that it has etched HUBBARD's works in steel, to maintain them forever.  Besides that, HUBBARD's instructions are also followed by Scientologists because they believe that the use of this alleged superior technology will remove every obstacle from their path and will solve all problems.
The attempt to compromise the importance of HUBBARD's writings to outsiders, or even to pass them off as his "private opinion," are attempts at obfuscation from an organization marked by ideological strictness, who constantly seeks to convince its members that
- the salvation of humanity depends on the correct application of the "technology,"
- people before had not developed any usable mental "technology" (this was possible only for Hubbard),
- Scientologists are the only "ethical" group on the planet,
- non-Scientologists are "aberrated,"  and are even described as a "mob" ,
- Scientology is the only chance to save humanity.
1. In the 1960s and 1970s, the "Hubbard Communication Office" was the center which directed the activities of the sub-organization. See also footnote 89.
2. Auditor: a person who applies Scientology techniques to change people's personalities.
3. L. Ron HUBBARD, "Introduction to the Ethics of Scientology," Copenhagen, 1998, pp. 75
4. See sect. 7.1.
5. L. Ron HUBBARD, "Introduction to the Ethics of Scientology," Copenhagen, 1998, pp. 449
6. L. Ron HUBBARD, "Policy Letters: their origin," in the "Organization Executive Course Volume 0", Copenhagen, 1999, pp. 28.
7. "International Scientology News" magazine Nr. 8/1998, p. 12
8. "aberrated": SO term for "mentally disturbed or deviating from intelligent behavior".
9. HUBBARD repeatedly expressed his disdain for society. For instance, he used the English word "mob" in a policy letter in which he propagated the spread of Scientology policy in society (L. Ron HUBBARD, Policy Letter <Administration Outside Scientology> in "The Organization Executive Course Vol. 1", Copenhagen, 1991, p. 738.
<Therein lies total victory over any suppressive group or society. Not in doing them in - they're already busily engaged doing that to themselves - rather to handle them only to the extent that they will keep quiet so that one day we can approach them with the correct Rundowns.> 
The most important Scientology processes are "auditing," "security checks," "training routines," and training techniques like "word-clearing."
"Auditing" is the SO's central method by which it claims to create a "new person" and to remove undesirable perceptions, fears and psychosomatic pain, as well as to increase performance ability. This is the way that a perfect society, a "clear" state and a "new civilization" with people that function almost perfectly, called "clears," is supposed to be gradually built.
According to HUBBARD's theory, a person consists of body, mind and an immortal spiritual being, called a "Thetan." Every person possesses an "analytical mind," which HUBBARD said functions like a computer and is capable of solving problems, and also a "reactive mind," which is said to store painful and traumatic experiences ("engrams"), and which supposedly exerts influence over the individual. According to HUBBARD, "engrams" give rise to "aberrations," which Scientologists perceive to be debilitative deviations from "proper" behavior. Since, according to HUBBARD's theory, all people have a "reactive" mind as long as they have not been "cleared" by Scientology processes, non-Scientologists are considered to be "aberrated." These are the ones who are said to pose a potential risk to society.
In "auditing," the engrams are "erased" by mentally re-living the painful experiences and traumata, which then relieves the person's psychic pressure ("charge"). According to HUBBARD's teachings, people become "good" this way. The first step is to have the person become a "clear" by removal of the "reactive" mind. After that come various levels to become an "Operating Thetan" (OT). HUBBARD claimed that an OT was in complete control of his power and possessed superhuman abilities. Scientologists call the path up through the highest OT levels the "Bridge to Total Freedom." Individual "auditing" levels ("rundowns") can cost ten thousand dollars a shot.
US dollars Lifetime member rate OTII 6,352.00 5,081.00 OT III - The Wall of Fire 10,890.00 8,712.00 New OT IV - OT Drug rundown (per 12 1/2 hour segment) 9,831.25 7,865.00 New OT V - Audited NOTs (per 12 1/2 hour segment) 9,831.25 7,865.00 New OT VI 17,000.00 13,600.00 ... L-Rundowns (per 12 1/2 hours) 15,125.00 12,100.00 Every L-Rundown requires at least 25 hours Clear Certainty Rundown 4,235.00 3,388.00 The Sunshine Rundown is included with the CCRD Price list ("donations") for 2001 (from "Source" magazine Nr. 137)
"Auditing" is basically a combination of interrogation-type sessions and and some hypnosis-like psycho-techniques , wherein the "patient" and auditor sit facing each other. Most of the time it is carried out with a simple skin ohmmeter called the "e-meter." In "auditing" the subject is interrogated on themes, some of which are taboo, like sexuality. In giving reasons the subject also names people whose confidence has been gained, and whose reasons also have to be stated. It must be reckoned that the written minutes taken down during these sessions serve to "clear" not only the individual, but also his personal and professional environment. It is self-evident that a person who reveals intimate personal details risks extortion. In this connection the SO indicates that confidentiality is maintained, but the credibility of this statement is doubtful. For instance, Scientology "ministers" are supposed to forward to the "ethics" department written records of "unethical" dealings which have been revealed to them .
On February 22, 2002, the Belgian "Le Soir" newspaper reported that several thousand folders of Scientology adherents were confiscated in 1999 during a fraud investigation. After the SO, in a series of lawsuits, demanded the complete release of the documents, the Brussels court found that the contents of the folders confiscated from Scientology were in contradiction to the Belgian data protection law. The dossiers contained detailed medical information, reports on private life and sexual conduct, as well as statements about families and confessions which were taken from people on whom an "e-meter" was being used.
10. Designation for an "auditing" step.
11. L. Ron HUBBARD, HCO PL of 1 December 1979, published 11 December 2000, "Flourish and Prosper," distributed in February 2001 by the WISE Europe center in Copenhagen to German WISE members.
12. Hypnosis: semi-conscious state brought on through suggestion with a strong consciousness association and binding to the will of the hypnotist. Scientology disputes using hypnosis. Actually the introductory procedures of Dianetic processing nevertheless contains elements of a classic trance induction. The auditor may also give "suggestions" and has to use a "canceller" word. The procedure is described in the standard "Dianetics" text starting at p. 280. In medical opinion, the Dianetics processes contain components of hypnosis (Neuro-doctor opinion of the Neuro-clinic of the University of Munich, 21 December 1984, p. 41, or Opinion of Prof. Dr. med. Hans ind, Herrliberg, 3 March 1989, p. 7).
13. L. Ron HUBBARD policy letter "Confessionals - Ethics Reports required" in "The Organization Executive Course Vol. 1," Copenhagen, 1991, p. 645
According to the official Scientology explanation, the "E-meter" relieves "spiritual" anxieties and measures the "spiritual" state of humans. It says the "E-meter" is not a lie detector. In an information letter not meant for public distribution, however, concerning the fight against terrorism, HUBBARD stated something quite different:
<What is really happening in there? It is a very sensitive, extremely modern version of the Wheatstone Bridge, which was invented a hundred years ago. It's use is constantly contested by 'liberals' and subversive groups. An outdated version of it exists today as a 'skin galvanometer' unit for a police lie detector. Those devices, however, are unwieldy and have an error rate of 9%.> 
HUBBARD claimed that the device used by the SO was less expensive and essentially improved, so that a greater number of people could be checked <when using it at a roadblock>, for example. <Compared to the old police lie detector, that is a big advantage, since the old lie detectors need about one hour per person.>
Further down in the same Information Letter, HUBBARD wrote of "E-meter" use:
<Good control requires superior technology. (...) So don't have any qualms regarding penetration of a person's private sphere when using E-meters. Only an honest person has a right to his private sphere. Only the loyal have earned it.>
14. L. Ron HUBBARD, HCO Information Letter "E-meters replace guns" in "The Technical Bulletins of Dianetics and Scientology Vol. VIII," Copenhagen, 1991, p. 247. Emphasis in the original.
The "E-meter" is also used for "Security Checks" ("Sec-Checks" for short), during which "crimes" against the Scientology system are supposedly found. People who have left Scientology have told of a humiliating procedure in the form of non-stop interrogation, which can last for hours. The SO has numerous checklists for doing this. Questions posed by the "Joburg Confessional" include:
<26. Have you ever committed adultery?... 29. Have you ever been sexually unfaithful?... 32. Have you ever slept with a member of a race of another color? ... 44. Have you ever been a communist or had anything to do with communism? ... 47. Have you ever had sexual intercourse under the influence of alcohol? ... 55. Have you ever done something you were afraid the police were going to find out? ... 78. Do you think that communism has some good aspects? 79. Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party? 86. Have you ever had unfriendly thoughts about L. Ron Hubbard? 90. Do you know of any secret plans against Scientology? ...> 
A "Security Check" for children also exists. That means an "E-meter" can be used in asking a child:
<Children's Security Check ages 6 - 12 1. What has anyone told you not to say? (...) 19. Do you have a secret? (...) 21. Have you ever done something that you're very ashamed of? (...) 28. Have you ever lied to a teacher? (...) 34. Have you ever done something you shouldn't have when you were in bed or should have been sleeping? (...) 41. Have you ever done anything with your body that you shouldn't have? (...) 58. Have you not told the entire truth about anything to protect someone? (...) 61. Have you ever disappointed your parents? (...)> 
15. L. Ron HUBBARD, HCO Policy Letter "Johannesburg Confessional List" of 7 April 1961RC, revised on 15 November 1987, valid in the revised text.
16. L. Ron HUBBARD, HCO Bulletin "Childrens Security Check" in "The Technical Bulletins of Dianetics and Scientology Vol. VI", Copenhagen, 1991, pp. 290.
instructions: "LOOK AT THIS WALL." "THANK YOU."
Another important element of Scientology techniques are the "Training Routines" (TRs), which deal with various techniques of behavioral conditioning. There is "Confront," for instance, in which the course participant and his training partner ("twin") stare at each other without moving. Other TRs are drills in meaningless communication, such as the incessant "acknowledgment" to the question, "Do fish swim?", or include screaming at an ashtray. In so-called "Bullbaiting," the course participant is supposed to remain motionless while being yelled at and insulted.  The trainer is not supposed to allow any interruptions to the stereotyped drills, which can last hours, but stoically fulfil his instructions. The subject sometimes has to endure humiliating procedures under the impression that they contain a scientific or logical explanation for this training routine.
There are also "training routines" for the instructor, or "coach." In the "Administrative Training Drills" , people are trained to carry out orders without compromise and without tolerating objections.
HUBBARD has accused psychiatry of wanting to condition people like a Pavlovian dog. In a moment of self-revelation regarding the "training routines" though, he once referred to a Scientologist handling a puppy with similar "TRs." The Scientologist, in exhausting the process of continually putting the dog's paw on the wall, did not end up "clearing" the dog, but he did manage to change the dog's behavior. Certainly it would have the same effect on a small child. 
17. L. Ron HUBBARD, lecture "Training exercises demonstrated" in "The Hubbard Course for professional TRs at upper levels," tape recording transcript and glossary, Copenhagen, 1994. pp. 70.
18. L. Ron HUBBARD, HCO Bulletin, "TRs of the upper levels" in "The Hubbard Course for professional TRS at upper levels," Copenhagen, 1990, pp. 14.
19. L. Ron HUBBARD, "Course for TRs & and Co-Audit of objective processes," Copenhagen, 1990, pp. 44.
20. L. Ron HUBBARD, HCO Bulletin, "Upper level TRs" in "The Hubbard Course for professional TRs at upper levels," Copenhagen, 1990, p. 12. The image is from the "Advanced Organization and Saint Hill Europe" brochure of 1995.
21. L. Ron HUBBARD, HCO Bulletin, "Administrative Training Drills" in "The Technical Bulletins of Dianetics and Scientology Vol. IX," Copenhagen, 1991, pp. 230.
22. L. Ron HUBBARD, lecture "Tone 40 on a Person" in "The Freedom Congress. Transcripts and Glossary," Los Angeles, 1996, pp. 208
HUBBARD's "study technology" includes his "important note" contained at the beginning of his books books and courses that one should never go past a word one has not fully understood. Instead it[s definition] should be precisely cleared to avoid difficulties in learning and understanding. "Wordclearing" is a manipulative learning technique for which numerous words, such as "freedom" and "ethics," have altered meanings in HUBBARD's dictionaries. In this way people are taken step by step into a new Scientology manner of thinking, which alters one's own concepts of values.
The SO recognizes nine different methods of "wordclearing," all of which have the goal of "hammering" the Scientology meaning of a word into the course participant. The testing of whether the person has assimilated the word and has "correctly" understood it can occur with the help of an "E-meter." The widely used program imparts policy and directives in the form of a steady drumbeat.  Critical discussion or examination of the subject matter is not an option. The new word system is not to be questioned.
The "redefinition of words" is an attempt to change meaning, and thus consciousness:
<A long-time propaganda technique used by socialists (both Communists and Nazis) is of interest for PR people. (...) The trick is: WORDS ARE REDEFINED TO HAVE ANOTHER MEANING THAT FAVORS THE PROPAGANDIST. (...) They are not 'natural' alterations of the language. They are carefully planned and controlled alterations through propaganda, (...) If the new definition is repeated frequently enough, public opinion can be altered through the change of the word's meaning. (...) The redefinition of words is carried out so that one associated other emotions and symbols with words that were intended. (...) Two things have taken place on this account - the Scientologists redefine 'doctor,' 'psychiatrist' and 'psychology' to mean 'undesirable anti-social elements,' (...)> 
23. For instance, there is the "Chinese School" learning technique in which the given text is repeated in chorus (L. Ron HUBBARD, Policy Letters "Chinese Schools" and "How one conducts Chinese School on an Organization board" in "The Management Series volume 2," Copenhagen, 2001, pp. 464).
Note: 24. L. Ron HUBBARD, Policy Letter "Propaganda through Redefinition of Words" in "The Management Series volume 3," Copenhagen, 2001, pp. 90.
In a lecture on the basics of "auditing" Hubbard also mentioned the possibilities of exercising political power through "auditing." The purpose of his instructions is to take away any obstacle that auditors have, which includes researching people's most intimate secrets. HUBBARD bases this on the fiction that the path to a completely conflict-free society may be traveled by "clear" people.  It is apparent that Scientology wants to obtain comprehensive tests of people, by "auditing" or "sec checks," so that the organization may produce "x-rays" of their psyches.
Actually, Scientology's techniques are methods of indoctrination and serve the purpose of ideological reeducation. According to Scientology doctrine, mistakes or personal failures are based on insufficient or erroneous use of HUBBARD's handling instructions, and are the result of personal incapability. Processes of group dynamics and intensive peer pressure also plays an important role.
On top of this, individuals are only supposed to be aware of those policies or directives, some of which are confidential, that are necessary for their education level and for their function inside the hierarchy. While only a few top functionaries have the total picture at their disposal, as a rule, individual Scientologists have insight into only parts of the system.
25. L. Ron HUBBARD, lecture "Presession 38, Withholds and being In-Session" in "Series on the Fundamentals of Auditing," Audio cassette 6101C24 3SAACC2, New Era Publications, copyright 1982.
Medical experts have directed attention to HUBBARD's technique repeatedly. One opinion determined:
"An allegedly superior value system is imparted to them [the Scientologists]. This produces a perception of being elite, which leads to isolation from the environment. (...) Secrecy and the proximity of educational, organizational and supervisory hierarchies make the situation unfathomable for the individual, so that considerable internal pressure builds up, which originated with the hierarchy but is not provable at the specific individual level. (...) As a rule, people are guided into believing that disturbances in their well-being or in their dealings with Scientology in the outside world can be found in the form of 'suppressive persons' or 'potential trouble sources.'" 
Another opinion comments on "wordclearing" as follows:
"All the words of a sentence can be well understood in accordance with a dictionary but the sentence can nonetheless have no reasonable meaning or contain an abstruse idea. In this way, wordclearing can become an instrument of indoctrination, because the PC  is urged to accept a text even if he understands only the individual words. (...) An important instruction of indoctrination is technical jargon with its numerous artificial words and abbreviations, which cannot be deciphered without a special dictionary." 
Regarding "training routines" and "drills," experts have determined there is a risk of conditioning and have summarized, "It is clear, that the PC is being conditioning in this manner to undertake everything willingly, including carrying out subsequent instructions without criticism. (...) He is supposed to become a transparent person who unconditionally serves the system. Any real psychotherapy, in contrast, has the goal of strengthening the autonomy of the patient, to aid him to greater inner self-determination and on to departure from the psychotherapist. In Scientology and Dianetics the opposite direction is taken quite deliberately for the purpose of control." 
26. Neuromedical opinion of the Neuroclinic of the University of Munich, 21 December 1984, pp. 11.
27. PC: "preclear," Scientology term for people being audited who are not yet "cleared."
28. Prof. Dr. med. Hans Kind, "Selected quotes and excerpts from the writings of L. Ron HUBBARD with bibliographical references sorted by theme and critical comments," Zurich, 1994, p. 11 and 21.
29. ibid, pp. 22.